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Details for Patent: 6,989,366

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Details for Patent: 6,989,366

Title:Exendins, exendin agonists, and methods for their use
Abstract: Methods for treating conditions or disorders which can be alleviated by reducing food intake are disclosed which comprise administration of an effective amount of an exendin or an exendin agonist, alone or in conjunction with other compounds or compositions that affect satiety. The methods are useful for treating conditions or disorders, including obesity, Type II diabetes, eating disorders, and insulin-resistance syndrome. The methods are also useful for lowering the plasma glucose level, lowering the plasma lipid level, reducing the cardiac risk, reducing the appetite, and reducing the weight of subjects. Pharmaceutical compositions for use in the methods of the invention are also disclosed.
Inventor(s): Beeley; Nigel Robert Arnold (Solana Beach, CA), Prickett; Kathryn S. (San Diego, CA), Bhavsar; Sunil (San Diego, CA)
Assignee: Amylin PHarmaceuticals, Inc. (San Diego, CA)
Filing Date:Jun 28, 2002
Application Number:10/187,051
Claims:1. A method for reducing food intake in a subject desirous or in need of reducing food intake, comprising peripherally administering to said subject an amount of an exendin agonist effective to reduce food intake, wherein the exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said peripheral administration is by injection.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said peripheral administration is selected from the group consisting of intravenous administration, intraperitoneal administration, subcutaneous administration, intramuscular administration, oral administration, topical administration, transmucosal administration, and pulmonary administration.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 10 .mu.g/70 kg to about 5 mg/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 10 .mu.g/70 kg to about 2 mg/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day, in single or divided doses.

6. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 10 .mu.g/70 kg to about 500 .mu.g/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

7. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 100 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

8. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 10 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

9. The method according to claim 1, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 1 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein said subject is human.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein said subject suffers from Type II diabetes.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein said subject suffers from an eating disorder.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein said subject suffers from an insulin-resistance syndrome.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein said exendin agonist is selected from the group consisting of exendin-4 (1-30), exendin-4 (1-30) amide, exendin-4 (1-28) amide, .sup.14Leu,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 amide, .sup.14Leu,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 (1-28) amide, and .sup.14Leu,.sup.22Ala,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 (1-28) amide.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Gly Thr Xaa.sub.4 Xaa.sub.5 Xaa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Ser Lys Gln Xaa.sub.9 Glu Glu Glu Ala Val Arg Leu Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Leu Lys Asn Gly Gly Xaa.sub.14 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Xaa.sub.18-Z [SEQ ID NO. 3] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg or Tyr; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.4 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.5 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.6 is Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.7 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.8 is Leu, Ile, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.9 is Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.10 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.11 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.12 is Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.13 is Trp, Phe, Tyr, or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.14, Xaa.sub.15, Xaa.sub.16 and Xaa.sub.17 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; Xaa.sub.18 is Ser, Thr or Tyr; and Z is --OH or --NH.sub.2; with the proviso that the exendin peptide analog is not exendin-3 [SEQ ID NO. 1] or exendin-4 [SEQ ID NO. 2].

16. The method of claim 1, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Gly Xaa.sub.5 Xaa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Xaa.sub.9 Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Xaa.sub.14 Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Ala Xaa.sub.19 Xaa.sub.20 Xaa.sub.21 Xaa.sub.22 Xaa.sub.23 Xaa.sub.24 Xaa.sub.25 Xaa.sub.26 Xaa.sub.27 Xaa.sub.28-Z1 [SEQ ID NO. 4] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg or Tyr; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.5 is Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.6 is Ala, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.7 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.8 is Ala, Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.9 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.10 is Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.11 is Ala or Ser; Xaa.sub.12 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.13 is Ala or Gln; Xaa.sub.14 is Ala, Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.15 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.16 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.17 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.19 is Ala or Val; Xaa.sub.20 is Ala or Arg; Xaa.sub.21 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.22 is Ala, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.23 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.24 is Ala, Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.25 is Ala, Trp, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.26 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.27 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.28 is Ala or Asn; Z.sub.1 is --OH, --NH.sub.2, Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37-Z.sub.2 or Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38-Z.sub.2; wherein Xaa.sub.31, Xaa.sub.36, Xaa.sub.37 and Xaa.sub.38 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; and Z.sub.2 is --OH or --NH.sub.2; provided that no more than three of Xaa.sub.5, Xaa.sub.6, Xaa.sub.8, Xaa.sub.10, Xaa.sub.11, Xaa.sub.12, Xaa.sub.13, Xaa.sub.14, Xaa.sub.15, Xaa.sub.16, Xaa.sub.17, Xaa.sub.19, Xaa.sub.20, Xaa.sub.21, Xaa.sub.24, Xaa.sub.25, Xaa.sub.26, Xaa.sub.27 and Xaa.sub.28 are Ala.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Xaa.sub.4 Xaa.sub.5 Xaa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Xaa.sub.9 Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Xaa.sub.14 Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Ala Xaa.sub.19 Xaa.sub.20 Xaa.sub.21 Xaa.sub.22 Xaa.sub.23 Xaa.sub.24 Xaa.sub.25 Xaa.sub.26 Xaa.sub.27 Xaa.sub.28-Z.sub.1 [SEQ ID NO. 5] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg, Tyr, Ala, Norval, Val or Norleu; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Ala, Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.4 is Ala, Norval, Val, Norleu or Gly; Xaa.sub.5 is Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.6 is Ph; Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.7 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.8 is Ala, Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.9 is Ala, Norval, Val, Norleu, Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.10 is Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.11 is Ala or Ser; Xaa.sub.12 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.13 is Ala or Gln; Xaa.sub.14 is Ala, Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.15 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.16 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.17 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.19 is Ala or Val; Xaa.sub.20 is Ala or Arg; Xaa.sub.21 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.22 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.23 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.24 is Ala, Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.25 is Ala, Trp, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.26 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.27 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.28 is Ala or Asn; Z.sub.1 is --OH, --NH.sub.2, Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38-Z.sub.2, or Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38 Xaa.sub.39-Z.sub.2; wherein Xaa.sub.31, Xaa.sub.36, Xaa.sub.37, Xaa.sub.38 and Xaa.sub.39 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; and Z.sub.2 is --OH or --NH.sub.2; provided that no more than three of Xaa.sub.4, Xaa.sub.5, Xaa.sub.6, Xaa.sub.8, Xaa.sub.9, Xaa.sub.10, Xaa.sub.11, Xaa.sub.12, Xaa.sub.13, Xaa.sub.14, Xaa.sub.15, Xaa.sub.16, Xaa.sub.17, Xaa.sub.19, Xaa.sub.20, Xaa.sub.21, Xaa.sub.24, Xaa.sub.25, Xaa.sub.26, Xaa.sub.27 and Xaa.sub.28 are Ala; and provided that, if Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg or Tyr, then at least one of Xaa.sub.3, Xaa.sub.4 and Xaa.sub.9 is Ala.

18. The method of claim 1, further comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of an amylin agonist, a leptin, and a cholecystokinin (CCK).

19. A method for reducing appetite in a subject desirous or in need of reducing appetite, comprising peripherally administering to said subject an amount of an exendin agonist effective to reduce appetite, wherein the exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog.

20. The method according to claim 19, wherein said peripheral administration is by injection.

21. The method according to claim 19, wherein said peripheral administration is selected from the group consisting of intravenous administration, intraperitoneal administration, subcutaneous administration, intramuscular administration, oral administration, topical administration, transmucosal administration, and pulmonary administration.

22. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 10 .mu.g /70 kg to about 5 mg/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

23. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 10 .mu.g/70 kg to about 2 mg/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

24. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 10 .mu.g/70 kg to about 500 .mu.g/70 kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

25. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 100 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

26. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 10 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

27. The method according to claim 19, wherein about 0.1 .mu.g/kg to about 1 .mu.g/kg of the exendin agonist is administered per day in single or divided doses.

28. The method of claim 19, wherein said subject is human.

29. The method of claim 19, wherein said subject suffers from Type II diabetes.

30. The method of claim 19, wherein said subject suffers from an eating disorder.

31. The method of claim 19, wherein said subject suffers from an insulin-resistance syndrome.

32. The method of claim 19, wherein said exendin agonist is selected from the group consisting of exendin-4 (1-30), exendin-4 (1-30) amide, exendin-4 (1-28) amide, .sup.14Leu,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 amide, .sup.14Leu,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 (1-28) amide, and .sup.14Leu,.sup.22Ala,.sup.25Phe exendin-4 (1-28) amide.

33. The method of claim 19, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Gly Thr Xaa.sub.4 Xaa.sub.5 Xa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Ser Lys Gln Xaa.sub.9 Glu Glu Glu Ala Val Arg Leu Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Leu Lys Asn Gly Gly Xaa.sub.14 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Xaa.sub.18-Z [SEQ ID NO.3] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg or Tyr; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.4 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.5 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.6 is Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.7 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.8 is Leu, Ile, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.9 is Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.10 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.11 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.12 is Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.13 is Trp, Phe, Tyr, or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.14, Xaa.sub.15, Xaa.sub.16 and Xaa.sub.17 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; Xaa.sub.18 is Ser, Thr or Tyr; and Z is --OH or --NH.sub.2; with the proviso that the exendin peptide analog is not exendin-3 [SEQ ID NO. 1] or exendin-4 [SEQ ID NO. 2].

34. The method of claim 19, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Gly Xaa.sub.5 Xaa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Xaa.sub.9 Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Xaa.sub.14 Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Ala Xaa.sub.19 Xaa.sub.20 Xaa.sub.21 Xaa.sub.22 Xaa.sub.23 Xaa.sub.24 Xaa.sub.25 Xaa.sub.26 Xaa.sub.27 Xaa.sub.28-Z.sub.1 [SEQ ID NO. 4] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg or Tyr; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.5 is Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.6 is Ala, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.7 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.8 is Ala, Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.9 is Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.10 is Ala, Leu, Tie, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.11 is Ala or Ser; Xaa.sub.12 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.13 is Ala or Gln; Xaa.sub.14 is Ala, Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.15 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.16 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.17 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.19 is Ala or Val; Xaa.sub.20 is Ala or Arg; Xaa.sub.21 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.22 is Ala, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.23 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.24 is Ala, Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.25 is Ala, Trp, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.26 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.27 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.28 is Ala or Asn; Z.sub.1is --OH, --NH.sub.2, Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31-Z.sub.2., Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37-Z.sub.2 or Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38-Z.sub.2; wherein Xaa.sub.31, Xaa.sub.36, Xaa.sub.37 and Xaa.sub.38 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; and Z.sub.2 is --OH or --NH.sub.2; provided that no more than three of Xaa.sub.5, Xaa.sub.6, Xaa.sub.8, Xaa.sub.10, Xaa.sub.11, Xaa.sub.12, Xaa.sub.13, Xaa.sub.14, Xaa.sub.15, Xaa.sub.16, Xaa.sub.17, Xaa.sub.19, Xaa.sub.20, Xaa.sub.21, Xaa.sub.24, Xaa.sub.25, Xaa.sub.26, Xaa.sub.27 and Xaa.sub.28 are Ala.

35. The method of claim 19, wherein said exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog selected from: Xaa.sub.1 Xaa.sub.2 Xaa.sub.3 Xaa.sub.4 Xaa.sub.5 Xaa.sub.6 Xaa.sub.7 Xaa.sub.8 Xaa.sub.9 Xaa.sub.10 Xaa.sub.11 Xaa.sub.12 Xaa.sub.13 Xaa.sub.14 Xaa.sub.15 Xaa.sub.16 Xaa.sub.17 Ala Xaa.sub.19 Xaa.sub.20 Xaa.sub.21 Xaa.sub.22 Xaa.sub.23 Xaa.sub.24 Xaa.sub.25 Xaa.sub.26 Xaa.sub.27 Xaa.sub.28-Z.sub.1 [SEQ ID NO. 5] wherein Xaa.sub.1 is His, Arg, Tyr, Ala, Norval, Val or Norleu; Xaa.sub.2 is Ser, Gly, Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.3 is Ala, Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.4 is Ala, Norval, Val, Norleu or Gly; Xaa.sub.5 is Ala or Thr; Xaa.sub.6 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.7 is Thr or Ser; Xaa.sub.8 is Ala, Ser or Thr; Xaa.sub.9 is Ala, Norval, Val, Norleu, Asp or Glu; Xaa.sub.10 is Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, pentylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.11 is Ala or Ser; Xaa.sub.12 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.13 is Ala or Gln; Xaa.sub.14 is Ala, Leu, Ile, pentylglycine, Val or Met; Xaa.sub.15 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.16 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.17 is Ala or Glu; Xaa.sub.19 is Ala or Val; Xaa.sub.20 is Ala or Arg; Xaa.sub.21 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.22 is Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.23 is Ile, Val, Leu, pentylglycine, tert-butylglycine or Met; Xaa.sub.24 is Ala, Glu or Asp; Xaa.sub.25 is Ala, Trp, Phe, Tyr or naphthylalanine; Xaa.sub.26 is Ala or Leu; Xaa.sub.27 is Ala or Lys; Xaa.sub.28 is Ala or Asn; Z.sub.1 is --OH, --NH.sub.2, Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37-Z.sub.2, Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38-Z.sub.2, or Gly Gly Xaa.sub.31 Ser Ser Gly Ala Xaa.sub.36 Xaa.sub.37 Xaa.sub.38 Xaa.sub.39-Z.sub.2; wherein Xaa.sub.31, Xaa.sub.36, Xaa.sub.37, and Xaa.sub.38 are independently Pro, homoproline, 3Hyp, 4Hyp, thioproline, N-alkylglycine, N-alkylpentylglycine or N-alkylalanine; and Z.sub.2 is --OH or --NH.sub.2; provided that no more than three of Xaa3, Xaa4, Xaa5, Xaa8, Xaa9, Xaa10, Xaa11, Xaa12, Xaa13, Xaa14, Xaa15, Xaa16, Xaa17, Xaa19, Xaa20, Xaa21, Xaa24, Xaa25, Xaa26, Xaa27 and Xaa28 are Ala; and provided that, if Xaa1 is His, Arg or Tyr, then at least one of Xaa3, Xaa4 and Xaa9 is Ala.

36. The method of claim 19, further comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of an amylin agonist, a leptin, and a cholecystokinin (CCK).

37. A method for reducing food intake in a subject desirous or in need of reducing body weight, comprising peripherally administering to said subject an amount of an exendin agonist effective to reduce food intake, wherein the exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog.

38. The method according to claim 37, wherein said peripheral administration is by injection.

39. The method according to claim 37, wherein said peripheral administration is selected from the group consisting of intravenous administration, intraperitoneal administration, subcutaneous administration, intramuscular administration, oral administration, topical administration, transmucosal administration, and pulmonary administration.

40. A method for reducing appetite in a subject desirous or in need of reducing body weight, comprising peripherally administering to said subject an amount of an exendin agonist effective to reduce appetite, wherein the exendin agonist is an exendin peptide analog.

41. The method according to claim 40, wherein said peripheral administration is by injection.

42. The method according to claim 40, wherein said peripheral administration is selected from the group consisting of intravenous administration, intraperitoneal administration, subcutaneous administration, intramuscular administration, oral administration, topical administration, transmucosal administration, and pulmonary administration.
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