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Details for Patent: 6,610,841

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Details for Patent: 6,610,841

Title: Nucleotide-based prodrugs
Abstract:This invention relates to nucleotide-based prodrugs and their drug-delivery applications. The nucleotide-based prodrugs of the present invention comprise a drug component covalently attached via junctional ester bond(s) to one or more nucleotide components. Release and activation of the drug component of a nucleotide-based prodrug arises from hydrolysis of the junctional ester bond joining the nucleotide component to the drug component. The active drug component may be a nucleoside analog, a nucleic acid ligand, or a non-nucleoside drug. The nucleotide component provides a means of targeting and/or anchoring the nucleotide-based prodrug to the desired tissue compartment and/or a mechanism of sustained release of the active drug, thereby providing for a more effective drug delivery system with reduced toxicity. The targeting and/or anchoring of the nucleotide-based prodrugs to the desired tissue can be achieved through several methods, including employing a nucleic acid ligand as the nucleotide component, and/or by incorporating photocrosslinkable bases into the nucleotide component, and/or by covalently bonding the nucleotide component to a macromolecular support. The invention further includes lipid constructs comprising a nucleotide-based prodrug.
Inventor(s): Warren; Stephen (Boulder, CO)
Assignee: Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Foster City, CA)
Filing Date:Dec 18, 1997
Application Number:08/993,765
Claims:1. A nucleotide-based prodrug comprising a nucleotide component covalently bonded via a physiologically hydrolyzable junctional ester bond to a drug component; wherein said nucleotide-based prodrug is selected from a compound having the following formula: ##STR1## wherein X is independently selected from the group consisting of a drug with a hydroxyl group, a drug with a carboxyl group and H; R is independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F, OCH.sub.3 and NH.sub.2 ; N is independently selected from the group consisting of any base or modification or analog thereof, or non-nucleoside drug selected from the group consisting of ceramide or analogs thereof, vitamin D or analogs thereof and retinoids; Z is selected from a lipid bilayer vesicle or a macromolecular support; and n=1-150.

2. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said nucleotide component is a nucleic acid ligand.

3. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said drug component is a nucleic acid ligand.

4. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claims 2 or 3 wherein said nucleic acid ligand is identified by the method comprising: a) preparing a candidate mixture of nucleic acids; b) contacting the candidate mixture with a target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the total candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture; c) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the nucleic acids in the candidate mixture; and d) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a mixture of nucleic acids enriched for sequences with increased affinity for the target, whereby a nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

5. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 4 wherein said target is a tissue target.

6. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 5 wherein said tissue target is diseased.

7. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said drug component comprises one or more nucleoside analogs.

8. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 7 wherein said nucleoside analog is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional phosphodiester bond.

9. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said non-nucleoside drug is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional carbonyl ester bond.

10. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said non-nucleoside drug is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional phosphodiester bond.

11. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said drug component is a lipophilic compound.

12. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said lipid bilayer vesicle is a liposome.

13. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said drug component is covalently bonded to the 5'-end of the nucleotide component.

14. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said drug component is covalently bonded to the 3'-end of the nucleotide component.

15. A nucleotide-based prodrug comprising a nucleotide component covalently bonded via a physiologically hydrolyzable junctional ester bond to a drug component; wherein said nucleotide-based prodrug is selected from a compound having the following formula: ##STR2## wherein X is independently selected from the group consisting of a drug with a hydroxyl group, a drug with a carboxyl group and H; R is independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F, OCH.sub.3 and NH.sub.2 ; N is a photocrosslinkable base; and n=1-150.

16. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said nucleotide component is comprised of 2'-ribose modifications.

17. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said macromolecular support is a biocomparible polymer.

18. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1 wherein said macromolecular support is selected from the group consisting of polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone), poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyrate), poly(.beta.-hydroxyvalerate), polydioxanone, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(malic acid), poly(tartronic acid), poly(ortho esters), polyanhydrides, polycyanoacrylates, poly(phosphoesters), polyphosphazenes, hyaluronidate, polysulfones, polyacrylamides, polymethacrylate, CarboPol, hydroxyapaptite, chimeric recombinant elastin-silk protein and collagen.

19. A method of preparing a nucleotide-based prodrug; wherein said nucleotide-based prodrug is selected from a compound having the following formula: ##STR3##

wherein X is independently selected from the group consisting of a drug with a hydroxyl group, a drug with a carboxyl group and H; R is independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F, OCH.sub.3 and NH.sub.2 ; N is independently selected from the group consisting of any base of modification or analog thereof, or non-nucleoside drug selected from the group consisting of ceramide and analogs thereof, vitamin D and analogs thereof and retinoids; Z is selected from a lipid bilayer vesicle or a macromolecular support; and n=1-150,

said method comprising covalently bonding a nucleotide component to a drug component via a physiologically hydrolyzable junctional ester bond.

20. The method of claim 19 wherein said nucleotide component is a nucleic acid ligand.

21. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component is a nucleic acid ligand.

22. The method of claim 20 or 21 wherein said nucleic acid ligand is identified by the method comprising: a) preparing a candidate mixture of nucleic acids; b) contacting the candidate mixture with a target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the total candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture; c) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the nucleic acids in the candidate mixture; and d) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a mixture of nucleic acids enriched for sequences with increased affinity for the target, whereby a nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein said target is a tissue target.

24. The method of claim 23 wherein said tissue target is diseased.

25. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component comprises one or more nucleoside analogs.

26. The method of claim 25 wherein said nucleoside analog is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional phosphodiester bond.

27. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component comprises a non-nucleoside drug.

28. The method of claim 19 wherein said non-nucleoside drug is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional carbonyl ester bond.

29. The method of claim 19 wherein said non-nucleoside drug is covalently bonded to said nucleotide component via a junctional phosphodiester bond.

30. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component is a lipophilic compound.

31. The method of claim 19 wherein said lipid bilayer vesicle is a liposome.

32. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component is covalently bonded to the 5'-end of the nucleotide component.

33. The method of claim 19 wherein said drug component is covalently bonded to the 3'-end of the nucleotide component.

34. A method of preparing a nucleotide-based prodrug; wherein said nucleotide-based prodrug is selected from a compound having the following formula: ##STR4## wherein X is independently selected from the group consisting of a drug with a hydroxyl group, a drug with a carboxyl group and H; R is independently selected from the group consisting of H, OH, F, OCH.sub.3 and NH.sub.2 ; N is a photocrosslinkable base; and n=1-150.

35. The method of claim 19 wherein said nucleotide component is comprised of 2'-ribose modifications.

36. The method of claim 19 wherein said macromolecular support is a biocompatible polymer.

37. The method of claim 19 wherein said macromolecular support is selected from the group consisting of polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone), poly(.beta.-hydroxybutyrate), poly(.beta.-hydroxyvalerate), polydioxanone, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(malic acid), poly(tartronic acid), poly(ortho esters), polyanhydrides, polycyanoacrylates, poly(phosphoesters), polyphosphazenes, hyaluronidate, polysulfones, polyacrylamides, polymethacrylate, CarboPol, hydroxyapaptite, chimeric recombinant elastin-silk protein and collagen.

38. The nucleotide-based prodrug of claim 1, wherein N is independly selected from the group of compounds having the following structural formulas: ##STR5##

wherein Y is independently selected from the group consisting of Br, I, F, N.sub.3, CH.sub.2 CHBr, CH.sub.2 CHI, 4-thiouridine and cytosine arabinoside.
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