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Details for Patent: 6,506,917

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Details for Patent: 6,506,917

Title: Compounds and compositions useful for modulation of processes mediated by RXR
Abstract:In accordance with the present invention, there are provided methods to modulate processes mediated by retinoid receptors, employing high affinity, high specificity ligands for such receptors. In one aspect of the present invention, there are provided ligands which are more selective for the retinoid X receptor than is retinoic acid (i.e., rexoids). In another aspect of the present invention, alternative ligands (other than retinoic acid) have been discovered which are capable of inducing retinoic acid receptor mediated processes. In yet another aspect, methods have been developed for the preparation of such retinoid receptor ligands from readily available compounds.
Inventor(s): Evans; Ronald M. (La Jolla, CA), Mangelsdorf; David J. (Dallas, TX), Heyman; Richard A. (Encinitas, CA), Boehm; Marcus F. (San Diego, CA), Eichele; Gregor (Houston, TX), Thaller; Christina (Houston, TX)
Assignee: The Salk Institute for Biological Studies (La Jolla, CA)
Filing Date:Jun 07, 1995
Application Number:08/480,967
Claims:1. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation consisting essentially of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and at least one compound having the structure: ##STR17##

wherein: unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.9 and C.sup.10 has a cis configuration, and one or both sites of unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.11 through C.sup.14 optionally have a cis configuration; "Ring" is a an optionally substituted cyclic moiety selected from the group consisting of cyclopentane, cyclopentene, cyclohexane, cyclohex-2-ene, cyclohex-3-ene, cyclohex-4-ene, cyclohex-5-ene, 2,4-cyclohexadiene, 2,5-cyclohexadiene, 3,5-cyclohexadiene, dihydropyran, tetrahydropyran, dihydrothiopyran, tetrahydrothiopyran, piperidine, pyrrolidine, phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, mesityl, benzyl, and pyridyl, wherein if Ring is phenyl, none of the optional substituents is halogen; Z is selected from the group consisting of carboxyl (--COOH), carboxaldehyde (--COH), hydroxyalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OH, wherein each R' is independently selected from hydrogen or a lower alkyl and n falls in the range of 1 up to about 4), thioalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SH, wherein R' and n are as defined above), hydroxyalkyl phosphate (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OP(OM).sub.3, wherein R' and n are as defined above and M is hydrogen, lower alkyl, or a cationic species), alkyl ether of a hydroxyalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), alkyl thioether of a thioalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above), N-acyl aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--R", wherein R' and n are as defined above and R" is a lower alkyl or benzyl), carbamate (CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--OR' or --(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above); and each R is independently selected from H, halogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, amino, keto, or any of the Z substituents,

wherein said compound is not 9-cis-retinoic acid.

2. A formulation according to claim 1 wherein Ring is a cyclohexyl ring having the following structure: ##STR18##

wherein: each R is independently selected from H, halogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, amino, or any of the Z substituents; any one of C.sup.2, C.sup.3, or C.sup.4 can be replaced with --O--, carbonyl (>CO), --S--, --S(O)--, --S(O).sub.2 --, thiocarbonyl (>CS), or --NR"--; R" is hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxy, thiol, or alkoxy acyl; and said cyclic moiety exists as the saturated, 2-ene, 3-ene, 4-ene, or 5-ene mono-unsaturated isomer, or the 2,4-, 2,5-, or 3,5-diene derivative thereof, or an aromatic derivative thereof.

3. A formulation according to claim 2 wherein Ring is a 1,1,5-trisubstituted cyclohex-5-ene or a 1,1,4,5-tetrasubstituted cyclohex-5-ene.

4. A formulation according to claim 2 wherein Ring is 1,1,5-trimethyl cyclohex-5-ene.

5. A formulation according to claim 1 wherein Z is carboxyl.

6. A formulation according to claim 1 wherein said formulation is effective to activate retinoid receptor(s).

7. A formulation according to claim 1 wherein said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier renders said formulation suitable for oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular or intracutaneous administration.

8. A formulation according to claim 7 wherein said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is selected from creams, lotions, tablets, dispersible powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, sterile aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions.

9. A formulation according to claim 8 wherein said carrier contains an agent selected from wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, dispersing agents, sweetening agents, flavoring agents or perfuming agents.

10. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and at least one compound having the structure: ##STR19##

wherein: unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.9 and C.sup.10 has a cis configuration, and one or both sites of unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.11 through C.sup.14 optionally have a cis configuration; "Ring" is a an optionally substituted cyclic moiety selected from the group consisting of cyclopentane, cyclopentene, cyclohexane, cyclohex-2-ene, cyclohex-3-ene, cyclohex-4-ene, cyclohex-5-ene, 2,4-cyclohexadiene, 2,5-cyclohexadiene, 3,5-cyclohexadiene, dihydropyran, tetrahydropyran, dihydrothiopyran, tetrahydrothiopyran, piperidine, pyrrolidine, phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, mesityl, benzyl, and pyridyl, wherein if Ring is phenyl, none of the optional substituents is halogen; Z is selected from the group consisting of carboxyl (--COOH), carboxaldehyde (--COH), hydroxyalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OH, wherein each R' is independently selected from hydrogen or a lower alkyl and n falls in the range of 1 up to about 4), thioalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SH, wherein R' and n are as defined above), hydroxyalkyl phosphate (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OP(OM).sub.3, wherein R' and n are as defined above and M is hydrogen, lower alkyl, or a cationic species), alkyl ether of a hydroxyalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), alkyl thioether of a thioalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above), N-acyl aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--R", wherein R' and n are as defined above and R" is a lower alkyl or benzyl), carbamate (CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--OR' or --(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above); and each R is independently selected from H, halogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, amino, keto, or any of the Z substituents, provided however, that when Ring 1,1,5-trimethyl cyclohex-5-ene or 1,1,5-trimethyl cyclohex-4-ene, Z is carboxyl, and the R at each of C.sup.9 and C.sup.13 is methyl, then at least one R, in addition to the Rs at C.sup.9 and C.sup.13, is not hydrogen,

wherein said compound is not 9-cis-retinoic acid.

11. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein Ring is a cyclohexyl ring having the following structure: ##STR20##

wherein: each R is independently selected from H, halogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, amino, or any of the Z substituents; any one of C.sup.2, C.sup.3, or C.sup.4 can be replaced with --O--, carbonyl (>CO), --S--, --S(O)--, --S(O).sub.2 --, thiocarbonyl (>CS), or --NR"--; R" is hydrogen, alkyl, hydroxy, thiol, or alkoxy acyl; and said cyclic moiety exists as the saturated, 2-ene, 3-ene, 4-ene, or 5-ene mono-unsaturated isomer, or the 2,4-, 2,5-, or 3,5-diene derivative thereof; or an aromatic derivative thereof.

12. A formulation according to claim 11 wherein Ring is a 1,1,5-trisubstituted cyclohex-5-ene or a 1,1,4,5-tetrasubstituted cyclohex-5-ene.

13. A formulation according to claim 11 wherein Ring is 1,1,5-trimethyl cyclohex-5-ene.

14. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein Z is carboxyl.

15. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein said compound is 9-phenyl-9-cis-retinoic acid.

16. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein said compound is 4-hydroxy-9-cis-retinoic acid.

17. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein said compound is 4-keto-9-cis-retinoic acid.

18. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein said formulation is effective to activate retinoid receptor(s).

19. A formulation according to claim 10 wherein said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier renders said formulation suitable for oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular or intracutaneous administration.

20. A formulation according to claim 19 wherein said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is selected from creams, lotions, tablets, dispersible powders, granules, syrups, elixirs, sterile aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions.

21. A formulation according to claim 20 wherein said carrier contains an agent selected from wetting agents, emulsifying and suspending agents, dispersing agents, sweetening agents, flavoring agents or perfuming agents.

22. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and 9-phenyl-9-cis-retinoic acid.

23. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and 4-hydroxy-9-cis-retinoic acid.

24. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and 4-keto-9-cis-retinoic acid.

25. A composition in unit dosage form for oral administration comprising as an active ingredient a compound selected from the group consisting of 9-cis retinoic acid, pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, pharmaceutically acceptable hydrolyzable esters thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier suitable for oral administration.

26. A pharmaceutically acceptable formulation comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and at least one compound having the structure: ##STR21##

wherein: unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.9 and C.sup.10 has a cis configuration, and one or both sites of unsaturation between carbon atoms C.sup.11 through C.sup.14 optionally have a cis configuration; "Ring" is a an optionally substituted cyclic moiety selected from the group consisting of cyclopentane, cyclopentene, cyclohexane, cyclohex-2-ene, cyclohex-3-ene, cyclohex-4-ene, cyclohex-5-ene, 2,4-cyclohexadiene, 2,5-cyclohexadiene, 3,5-cyclohexadiene, dihydropyran, tetrahydropyran, dihydrothiopyran, tetrahydrothiopyran, piperidine, pyrrolidine, phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, mesityl, benzyl, and pyridyl, wherein if Ring is phenyl, none of the optional substituents is halogen; Z is selected from the group consisting of carboxyl (--COOH), carboxaldehyde (--COH), hydroxyalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OH, wherein each R' is independently selected from hydrogen or a lower alkyl and n falls in the range of 1 up to about 4), thioalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SH, wherein R' and n are as defined above), hydroxyalkyl phosphate (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OP(OM).sub.3, wherein R' and n are as defined above and M is hydrogen, lower alkyl, or a cationic species), alkyl ether of a hydroxyalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --OR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), alkyl thioether of a thioalkyl group (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --SR', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of hydroxyalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), esters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CO--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), thioesters of thioalkyl groups (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --S--CS--R', wherein R' and n are as defined above), aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above), N-acyl aminoalkyl (--(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--R", wherein R' and n are as defined above and R" is a lower alkyl or benzyl), carbamate (CR'.sub.2).sub.n --NR'--CO--OR' or --(CR'.sub.2).sub.n --O--CO--NR'.sub.2, wherein R' and n are as defined above); and each R is independently selected from H, halogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, thiol, alkoxy, thioalkoxy, amino, keto, or any of the Z substituents,

wherein said pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is not a topical preparation.
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