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Details for Patent: 5,993,783

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Details for Patent: 5,993,783

Title: Method and apparatus for pulmonary administration of dry powder .alpha.1-antitrypsin
Abstract:Dry powders of .alpha.1-antitrypsin are administered pulmonarily to patients to treat, for example, certain types of emphysema. The dry powder compositions may comprise aggregates of fine particles, which aggregates are friable and break-up upon dispersion in a flowing gas stream. Typically, the dispersed powders are captured in a chamber and subsequently inhaled by a patient for pulmonary treatment of emphysema and other conditions.
Inventor(s): Eljamal; Mohammed (San Jose, CA), Patton; John S. (San Carlos, CA)
Assignee: Inhale Therapeutic Systems (San Carlos, CA)
Filing Date:Jul 13, 1998
Application Number:09/114,713
Claims:1. A method of administering .alpha.1-antitrypsin to a patient, comprising:

providing said .alpha.1-antitrypsin as a dry powder comprising aggregates of fine particles, wherein said fine particles have a mean particle size of from about 1 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m and said aggregates have a mean size of from about 50 .mu.m to about 600 .mu.m, and wherein said agglomerates have a friability index of from about 10 to about 60;

aerosolizing said dry powder composition; and

administering from 1 mg to 80 mg of said aerosolized dry powder composition pulmonarily to said patient per day.

2. The method as recited in claim 1, comprising:

dispersing an amount of the .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder in a gas stream to form an aerosol; and

capturing the aerosol in a chamber suitable for subsequent inhalation by the patient.

3. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 50% pure.

4. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 90% pure.

5. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 95% pure.

6. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 99% pure.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein said aggregates are spherical in shape.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein said aggregates are formed with a nonaqueous solvent binding liquid.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein said nonaqueous solvent binding liquid comprises a fluorocarbon liquid.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein said fluorocarbon liquid is selected from the group consisting of perfluorodecalin and perfluorooctyl bromide.

11. The method as recited in claim 1, wherein said dispersible dry powder composition of .alpha.1-antitrypsin is from about 70% to about 90% pure.

12. A method of treating a patient deficient in .alpha.1-antitrypsin, comprising administering pulmonarily to said patient, a therapeutically effective amount of a .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 1 to about 50 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

14. The method as recited in claim 12, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 5 to about 25 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

15. The method as recited in claim 12, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 10 to about 15 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

16. A method of treating a patient suffering from emphysema, comprising administering pulmonarily to said patient from 1 mg to 80 mg per day of a therapeutically effective amount of aerosolized dry powder .alpha.1-antitrypsin, wherein said powder comprises aggregates of fine particles, wherein said fine particles have a mean particle size of from about 1 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m and said aggregates have a mean size of from about 50 .mu.m to about 600 .mu.m, and wherein said agglomerates have a friability index of from about 10 to about 60.

17. An apparatus for administering .alpha.1-antitrypsin to a patient, the apparatus comprising:

a housing having a chamber disposed therein, said chamber containing an amount in the range from 1 mg to 80 mg of an .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder composition, said powder composition comprising aggregates of fine particles, wherein said fine particles have a mean particle size of from about 1 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m and said aggregates have a mean size of from about 50 .mu.m to about 600 .mu.m, and wherein said agglomerates have a friability index of from about 10 to about 60;

a gas pressure source fluidly connected to said chamber, for delivering a gas stream to said chamber to aerosolize said dry powder composition; and

a means for delivering said aerosolized dry powder composition for inhalation by said patient, said means for delivering being fluidly connected to said chamber.

18. A method of administering .alpha.1-antitrypsin to a patient, comprising:

providing said .alpha.1-antitrypsin as a dry powder, wherein the powder comprises particles having an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 .mu.m;

aerosolizing said dry powder composition; and

administering said aerosolized dry powder composition pulmonarily to said patient.

19. The method as recited in claim 18, comprising:

dispersing an amount of the .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder in a gas stream to form an aerosol; and

capturing the aerosol in a chamber suitable for subsequent inhalation by the patient.

20. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 50% pure.

21. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 90% pure.

22. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 95% pure.

23. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 99% pure.

24. The method of claim 18, wherein in said providing step said .alpha.1-alantitrypsin dry powder comprises aggregates of fine particles, wherein said fine particles have a mean particle size of from about 1 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m and said aggregates have a mean size of from about 50 .mu.m to about 600 .mu.m, and wherein said agglomerates have a friability index of from about 10 to about 60.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein said aggregates are spherical in shape.

26. The method of claim 24, wherein said aggregates are formed with a nonaqueous solvent binding liquid.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein said nonaqueous solvent binding liquid comprises a fluorocarbon liquid.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein said fluorocarbon liquid is selected from the group consisting of perfluorodecalin and perfluorooctyl bromide.

29. The method as recited in claim 24, wherein said dispersible dry powder composition of .alpha.1-antitrypsin is from about 70% to about 90% pure.

30. A method of treating a patient deficient in .alpha.1-antitrypsin, comprising administering pulmonarily to said patient, a therapeutically effective amount of a .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder comprising particles having an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 .mu.m.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 1 to about 50 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

32. The method as recited in claim 30, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 5 to about 25 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

33. The method as recited in claim 30, wherein said therapeutically effective amount comprises from about 10 to about 15 mg of .alpha.1-antitrypsin daily.

34. A method of treating a patient suffering from emphysema, comprising administering pulmonarily to said patient a therapeutically effective amount of aerosolized dry powder .alpha.1 -antitrypsin, wherein the powder comprises particles having an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 .mu.m.

35. An apparatus for administering .alpha.1-antitrypsin to a patient, the apparatus comprising:

a housing having a chamber disposed therein, said chamber containing an amount of an .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder composition, wherein the powder comprises particles having an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 .mu.m;

a gas pressure source fluidly connected to said chamber, for delivering a gas stream to said chamber to aerosolize said dry powder composition; and

a means for delivering said aerosolized dry powder composition for inhalation by said patient, said means for delivering being fluidly connected to said chamber.

36. A respirable .alpha.1-antitrypsin powder comprising .alpha.1-antitrypsin particles having an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 .mu.m.

37. A powder as in claim 36, wherein said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 50% pure.

38. A powder as in claim 36, wherein said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 90% pure.

39. A powder as in claim 36, wherein said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 95% pure.

40. A powder as in claim 36, wherein said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder is greater than about 99% pure.

41. A powder as in claim 36, wherein said .alpha.1-antitrypsin dry powder comprises aggregates of fine particles, wherein said fine particles have a mean particle size of from about 1 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m and said aggregates have a mean size of from about 50 .mu.m to about 600 .mu.m, and wherein said agglomerates have a friability index of from about 10 to about 60.

42. A powder as in claim 41, wherein said aggregates are spherical in shape.

43. A powder as in claim 41, wherein said aggregates are formed with a nonaqueous solvent binding liquid.

44. A powder as in claim 43, wherein said nonaqueous solvent binding liquid comprises a fluorocarbon liquid.

45. A powder as in claim 44, wherein said fluorocarbon liquid is selected from the group consisting of perfluorodecalin and perfluorooctyl bromide.

46. A powder as in claim 43, wherein said dispersible dry powder composition of .alpha.1-antitrypsin is from about 70% to about 90% pure.
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