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Claims for Patent: 7,713,936

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Claims for Patent: 7,713,936

Title:Abuse-resistant amphetamine prodrugs
Abstract: The invention describes compounds, compositions, and methods of using the same comprising a chemical moiety covalently attached to amphetamine. These compounds and compositions are useful for reducing or preventing abuse and overdose of amphetamine. These compounds and compositions find particular use in providing an abuse-resistant alternative treatment for certain disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADD, narcolepsy, and obesity. Oral bioavailability of amphetamine is maintained at therapeutically useful doses. At higher doses bioavailability is substantially reduced, thereby providing a method of reducing oral abuse liability. Further, compounds and compositions of the invention decrease the bioavailability of amphetamine by parenteral routes, such as intravenous or intranasal administration, further limiting their abuse liability.
Inventor(s): Mickle; Travis (Coralville, IA), Krishnan; Suma (Belvedere, CA), Bishop; Barney (Annandale, VA), Lauderback; Christopher (Blacksburg, VA), Moncrief; James Scott (Christiansburg, VA), Oberlender; Robert (Blacksburg, VA), Piccariello; Thomas (Blacksburg, VA), Paul; Bernhard J. (Lexington, MA), Verbicky; Christopher A. (Broadalbin, NY)
Assignee: Shire LLC (Florence, KY)
Application Number:12/201,907
Patent Claims: 1. A method, in a subject in need thereof, of providing an amphetamine in a steady-state serum release curve without spiking blood serum concentrations, said method comprising administering to said subject L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof, whereby said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof maintains a steady-state serum release curve which provides therapeutically effective bioavailability of said amphetamine, but without spiking blood serum concentrations of said amphetamine when compared to the administration to said subject of the same amount of said amphetamine in the form of D-amphetamine.

2. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein said subject suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

3. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein said subject is an adult human.

4. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein said subject is a human who is not an adult.

5. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine is in the form of a salt.

6. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein said salt is a mesylate salt.

7. A method as defined in claim 6, wherein said salt is a dimesylate salt.

8. A method as defined in claim 5, wherein said salt is a hydrochloride salt.

9. A method as defined in claim 1, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof is in a dosage form selected from the group consisting of a tablet, capsule, caplet, oral solution, and oral suspension.

10. A method as defined in claim 9, wherein the amount of said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof in said dosage form is from about 2.5 to about 500 mg.

11. A method as defined in claim 10, wherein said amount is from about 5 to about 500 mg.

12. A method as defined in claim 11, wherein the amount is from about 10 to about 100 mg.

13. A method as defined in claim 12, wherein said amount is from 25 to 75 mg.

14. A method as defined in claim 13, wherein said amount is 30 mg.

15. A method as defined in claim 13, wherein said amount is 50 mg.

16. A method as defined in claim 13, wherein said amount is 70 mg.

17. A method, in a subject in need thereof, of providing an amphetamine in a steady-state serum release curve without increased blood serum concentrations, said method comprising administering to said subject L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof, whereby said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof maintains a steady-state serum release curve which provides therapeutically effective bioavailability of said amphetamine, but without increased blood serum concentrations of said amphetamine when compared to the administration to said subject of the same amount of said amphetamine in the form of D-amphetamine.

18. A method as defined in claim 17, wherein said subject suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

19. A method as defined in claim 17, wherein said subject is an adult human.

20. A method as defined in claim 17, wherein said subject is a human who is not an adult.

21. A method as defined in claim 17, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine is in the form of a salt.

22. A method as defined in claim 21, wherein said salt is a mesylate salt.

23. A method as defined in claim 22, wherein said salt is a dimesylate salt.

24. A method as defined in claim 21, wherein said salt is a hydrochloride salt.

25. A method as defined in claim 17, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof is in a dosage form selected from the group consisting of a tablet, capsule, caplet, oral solution, and oral suspension.

26. A method as defined in claim 25, wherein the amount of said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof in said dosage form is from about 2.5 to about 500 mg.

27. A method as defined in claim 26, wherein said amount is from about 5 to about 500 mg.

28. A method as defined in claim 27, wherein the amount is from about 10 to about 100 mg.

29. A method as defined in claim 28, wherein said amount is from 25 to 75 mg.

30. A method as defined in claim 29, wherein said amount is 30 mg.

31. A method as defined in claim 29, wherein said amount is 50 mg.

32. A method as defined in claim 29, wherein said amount is 70 mg.

33. A method, in a subject in need thereof, of providing an amphetamine in a steady-state serum release curve with reduced spiking blood serum concentrations, said method comprising administering to said subject L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof, whereby said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof maintains a steady-state serum release curve which provides therapeutically effective bioavailability of said amphetamine, but reduces spiking blood serum concentrations of said amphetamine when compared to the administration to said subject of the same amount of said amphetamine in the form of D-amphetamine.

34. A method as defined in claim 33, wherein said subject suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

35. A method as defined in claim 33, wherein said subject is an adult human.

36. A method as defined in claim 33, wherein said subject is a human who is not an adult.

37. A method as defined in claim 33, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine is in the form of a salt.

38. A method as defined in claim 37, wherein said salt is a mesylate salt.

39. A method as defined in claim 38, wherein said salt is a dimesylate salt.

40. A method as defined in claim 37, wherein said salt is a hydrochloride salt.

41. A method as defined in claim 33, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof is in a dosage form selected from the group consisting of a tablet, capsule, caplet, oral solution, and oral suspension.

42. A method as defined in claim 41, wherein the amount of said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof in said dosage form is from about 2.5 to about 500 mg.

43. A method as defined in claim 42, wherein said amount is from about 5 to about 500 mg.

44. A method as defined in claim 43, wherein the amount is from about 10 to about 100 mg.

45. A method as defined in claim 44, wherein said amount is from 25 to 75 mg.

46. A method as defined in claim 45, wherein said amount is 30 mg.

47. A method as defined in claim 45, wherein said amount is 50 mg.

48. A method as defined in claim 45, wherein said amount is 70 mg.

49. A method, in a subject in need thereof, of providing an amphetamine in a steady-state serum release curve with a reduced increased blood serum concentration, said method comprising administering to said subject L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof, whereby said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or a salt thereof maintains a steady-state serum release curve which provides therapeutically effective bioavailability of said amphetamine, but with a reduced increased blood serum concentration of said amphetamine when compared to the administration to said subject of the same amount of said amphetamine in the form of D-amphetamine.

50. A method as defined in claim 49, wherein said subject suffers from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

51. A method as defined in claim 49, wherein said subject is an adult human.

52. A method as defined in claim 49, wherein said subject is a human who is not an adult.

53. A method as defined in claim 49, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine is in the form of a salt.

54. A method as defined in claim 53, wherein said salt is a mesylate salt.

55. A method as defined in claim 54, wherein said salt is a dimesylate salt.

56. A method as defined in claim 53, wherein said salt is a hydrochloride salt.

57. A method as defined in claim 49, wherein said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof is in a dosage form selected from the group consisting of a tablet, capsule, caplet, oral solution, and oral suspension.

58. A method as defined in claim 57, wherein the amount of said L-lysine-d-amphetamine or salt thereof in said dosage form is from about 2.5 to about 500 mg.

59. A method as defined in claim 58, wherein said amount is from about 5 to about 500 mg.

60. A method as defined in claim 59, wherein the amount is from about 10 to about 100 mg.

61. A method as defined in claim 60, wherein said amount is from 25 to 75 mg.

62. A method as defined in claim 61, wherein said amount is 30 mg.

63. A method as defined in claim 61, wherein said amount is 50 mg.

64. A method as defined in claim 61, wherein said amount is 70 mg.
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