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Claims for Patent: 6,451,340

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Claims for Patent: 6,451,340

Title: Nucleotide analog compositions
Abstract:The invention provides crystalline forms of adefovir dipivoxil and methods to prepare the crystals. The compositions and methods of the present invention have desirable properties for large scale synthesis of crystalline adefovir dipivoxil or for its formulation into therapeutic dosages. Invention compositions include an anhydrous crystal form of adefovir dipivoxil.
Inventor(s): Arimilli; Murty N. (Fremont, CA), Kelly; Daphne E. (San Francisco, CA), Lee; Thomas T. K. (Redwood City, CA), Manes; Lawrence V. (Moss Beach, CA), Munger, Jr.; John D. (Alviso, CA), Prisbe; Ernest J. (Los Altos, CA), Schultze; Lisa M. (San Carlos, CA)
Assignee: Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Foster City, CA)
Application Number:09/950,031
Patent Claims: 1. A composition comprising crystalline adefovir dipivoxil.

2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the crystalline adefovir dipivoxil is Form 1 adefovir dipivoxil.

3. The composition of claim 2 comprising a C-centered monoclinic cell specified substantially as follows: a=12.85 .ANG., b=24.50 .ANG., c=8.28 .ANG., .beta.=100.2.degree., Z=4, space group Cc.

4. The composition of claim 2 having an X-ray powder diffraction spectrum peak using Cu--K.alpha. radiation, expressed in degrees 2.theta. at about 6.9.

5. The composition of claim 4 having a DSC endothermic transition at about 102.degree. C.

6. The composition of claim 1 wherein the crystalline adefovir dipivoxil is Form 2 adefovir dipivoxil.

7. The composition of claim 6 having an X-ray powder diffraction spectrum peak using Cu--K.alpha. radiation, expressed in degrees 2.theta. at about 9.6, about 18.3, about 22.0 and about 32.8.

8. The composition of claim 7 having a DSC endothermic transition at about 73.degree. C.

9. The composition of claim 1 wherein the crystalline adefovir dipivoxil is Form 3 adefovir dipivoxil.

10. The composition of claim 9 having an X-ray powder diffraction spectrum peak using Cu--K.alpha. radiation, expressed in degrees 2.theta. at about 8.1, about 19.4, about 25.4 and about 30.9.

11. The composition of claim 10 having a DSC endothermic transition at about 85.degree. C.

12. The composition of claim 1 wherein the crystalline adefovir dipivoxil is Form 4 adefovir dipivoxil.

13. The composition of claim 12 having an X-ray powder diffraction spectrum peak using Cu--K.alpha. radiation, expressed in degrees 2.theta. at about 9.8, about 15.2, about 26.3 and about 31.7.

14. The composition of claim 12 having a DSC endothermic transition at about 148.degree. C.

15. The composition of claim 1 comprising a crystalline salt of adefovir dipivoxil.

16. The crystalline salt of claim 15 wherein the crystalline salt is a salt of an organic acid.

17. The crystalline salt of claim 15 wherein the crystalline salt is a salt of an inorganic acid.

18. The composition of claim 1 wherein the crystalline adefovir dipivoxil is a crystalline salt of adefovir dipivoxil selected from the group consisting of hemisulfate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, nitrate, mesylate, ethane sulfonate, .beta.-naphthylene sulfonate, .alpha.-naphthylene sulfonate, (S)-camphor sulfonate, succinic acid, maleic acid, ascorbic acid or nicotinic acid.

19. The composition of claim 1 comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

20. A method comprising administering to a subject an antivirally effective amount of the composition of claim 19.

21. A method comprising contacting a crystallization solvent and adefovir dipivoxil.

22. The method of claim 21 wherein the adefovir dipivoxil is in a a solution.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein the crystallization solvent is mixed with the solution to obtain a second solution, which is allowed to form crystals.

24. A method comprising crystallizing adefovir dipivoxil from a solution comprising about 6-45% adefovir dipivoxil and about 55-94% crystallization solvent wherein the crystallization solvent is selected from the group consisting of (1) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of acetone:di-n-butyl ether, (2) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of ethyl acetate:di-n-propyl ether, (3) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 10:1 v/v of t-butanol:di-n-butyl ether, (4) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of methylene chloride:di-n-butyl ether, (5) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 10:1 v/v of diethyl ether:di-n-propyl ether, (6) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of tetrahydrofuran:di-n-butyl ether, (7) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of ethyl acetate:di-n-butyl ether, (8) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of tetrahydropyran:di-n-butyl ether, (9) a mixture between about 1:10 v/v to about 1:3 v/v of ethyl acetate:diethyl ether, (10) t-butyl-methyl ether, (11) diethyl ether, (12) di-n-butyl ether, (13) t-butanol, (14) toluene, (15) isopropyl acetate, (16) ethyl acetate, and (17) a mixture consisting essentially of (A) a first crystallization solvent consisting of a first dialkyl ether of the formula R.sup.1 --O--R.sup.2 wherein R.sup.1 is an alkyl group having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms, R.sup.2 is an alkyl group having 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbon atoms wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different, or both R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are linked together to form a 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-membered ring, provided that the dialkyl ether is not methyl-ethyl ether, and (B) a second crystallization solvent selected from the group consisting of (a) a second dialkyl ether of the formula R.sup.1 --O--R.sup.2, wherein the second dialkyl ether is different from the first dialkyl ether, (b) toluene, (c) tetrahydrofuran, (d) t-butanol, (e) ethyl acetate, (f) methylene chloride, (g) propyl acetate and (h) isopropanol.

25. A method for preparing Form 2 adefovir dipivoxil comprising forming adefovir dipivoxil crystals in the presence of water.

26. The method of claim 25 wherein the Form 2 adefovir dipivoxil is produced by (1) hydrating Form 1 adefovir dipivoxil crystals, and/or (2) crystallizing adefovir dipivoxil in the presence of water.

27. A method comprising contacting adefovir dipivoxil with methanol.

28. A method for preparing Form 4 adefovir dipivoxil comprising forming crystals comprising adefovir dipivoxil in the presence of fumaric acid.

29. A method for preparing adefovir dipivoxil comprising contacting 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine with chloromethyl pivalate in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a trialkylamine and recovering adefovir dipivoxil.

30. The method of claim 29 wherein the trialkylamine is triethylamine.

31. The method of claim 30 comprising contacting 1 molar equivalent of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine and about 5.6-56.8 molar equivalents of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone.

32. The method of claim 29 comprising contacting 1 molar equivalent of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine and about 2-5 molar equivalents of triethylamine.

33. A method comprising contacting 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine containing less than about 2% salt with chloromethyl pivalate.

34. The method of claim 33 wherein the salt is NaBr or KBr.

35. A product produced by the process of compressing a mixture comprising Form 1 adefovir dipivoxil and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

36. The product of claim 35 wherein the compression results in a tablet.

37. A product produced by the process of preparing wet granules from a mixture comprising a liquid, Form 1 adefovir dipivoxil and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

38. The product of claim 37 wherein the liquid is water.

39. The product of claim 37 wherein the process further comprises drying the wet granules.

40. A composition comprising a tablet containing adefovir dipivoxil, 20 mg pregelatinized starch, 24 mg croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, 24 mg talc and 4 mg magnesium stearate, wherein the adefovir dipivoxil comprises at least about 70% form 1 adefovir dipivoxil.

41. The composition of claim 40 wherein the tablet contains 60 mg adefovir dipivoxil and 268 mg lactose monohydrate.

42. The composition of claim 41 wherein the tablet weighs about 400 mg.

43. The composition of claim 41 wherein the adefovir dipivoxil comprises at least about 80% form 1 adefovir dipivoxil.

44. The composition of claim 40 wherein the tablet contains 120 mg adefovir dipivoxil and 208 mg lactose monohydrate.

45. The composition of claim 44 wherein the tablet weighs about 400 mg.

46. The composition of claim 44 wherein the adefovir dipivoxil comprises at least about 80% form 1 adefovir dipivoxil.

47. A method for preparing 9-[2-(diethylphosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-adenine comprising contacting sodium alkoxide and 9-(2-hydroxyethyl)adenine.
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