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|Optimisation of the Management of Placental Delivery in Second Trimester Pregnancy Interruption
|The University of Western Australia
|Interruption of a pregnancy after 14 weeks gestation may be required when the fetus is dead, severely malformed or in cases of maternal illness. This process is usually conducted medically in Australia, using the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol. This prostaglandin, although not specifically licensed for use in pregnancy termination, is now a common abortifacient with a lot of accumulated experience both within Australia and internationally. Since 1996, misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin, has been used at King Edward Memorial Hospital as the principal agent for second trimester pregnancy termination. This agent is administered vaginally, and in its current form and dosage regimen results in 75-80% of women delivering within 24 hours. As experience with this agent has grown, it has been observed that in approximately 40% of women the placenta is either completely retained or incompletely delivered, necessitating operative removal and an increased potential for maternal blood loss. In this study, it is planned, in a randomized controlled clinical trial, to evaluate three regimens for the management of placental delivery in women undergoing second trimester pregnancy interruption. The primary intention of this study is to develop a third stage management protocol to reduce the incidence of placental retention in second trimester medical pregnancy termination. The secondary aim of this study is to assess the ultrasound appearance of the uterus and its cavity within 24 hours of second trimester pregnancy termination. The ultrasound appearances of the uterus following second trimester pregnancy loss have not been previously investigated in detail. Previous ultrasound studies of the term postpartum uterus have demonstrated a high incidence of echogenic material within the uterine cavity soon after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. These findings have been of concern as the ultrasound appearances may erroneously imply a need for operative intervention. The investigators wish to ascertain if this high incidence of echogenic tissue presence is also true in the second trimester. Ultrasound is frequently used by clinicians to define placental completeness and the potential requirement for surgical curettage. The data from this single sonographic examination of the uterus will provide baseline data for a planned longitudinal study of uterine appearances following second trimester pregnancy loss and their correlation with clinical symptoms.
|Sublingual Versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labor Induction at Term
|American University of Beirut Medical Center
|Misoprostol (Cytotec®) is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog that has been marketed in the United States since 1988 as a gastric cytoprotective agent. In contradistinction to prostaglandin E2 preparations (dinoprostone, Prepidil, Cervidil), misoprostol is inexpensive and available in scored tablets that can be broken and inserted vaginally. Despite a focused campaign by the manufacturer to curtail its use in obstetric practice, misoprostol has, over the past several years, gained widespread acceptance as both a labor induction and a cervical ripening agent. Such off-label indication has been endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and other medical bodies. Recently, FDA approved a new label for the use of cytotec during pregnancy which removed pregnancy as a contraindication for its use. Vaginal administration seems to be more efficacious than when given orally, although there is the worry of uterine tachysystole and hyperstimulation with vaginal doses > 50-µg. The use of sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening at term was recently investigated in two studies that compared it to the oral route, on the assumption that the sublingual route would have the higher efficacy of the vaginal route by avoiding the first pass effects of the gastrointestinal and hepatic systems, while having lower hyperstimulation rates by avoiding the direct effects on the cervix. In addition, the sublingual route would combine an easier administration with the added advantage of no restriction of mobility after administration. There has been no previous report in the literature comparing the use of misoprostol given sublingually to that given vaginally for the induction of labor at term. Our aim is to compare efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction with misoprostol given vaginally (the current standard) to that given sublingually.
|A Randomized Trial of Two Regimens of Misoprostol for Second Trimester Termination for Intrauterine Fetal Death
|American University of Beirut Medical Center
|Misoprostol (Cytotec®) is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog that has been marketed in the United States since 1988 as a gastric cytoprotective agent. Despite a focused campaign by the manufacturer to curtail its use in obstetric practice, misoprostol has, over the past several years, gained widespread acceptance to effect the medical termination of pregnancy in the second trimester, either alone or after pretreatment with mifepristone. The primary reasons for this prompt incorporation into standard practice include its low cost and the lack of stringent storage requirements. Vaginal administration seems to be more efficacious than when given orally. The use of sublingual misoprostol for first trimester abortions has been extensively investigated as evidenced by the large number of publications comparing sublingual to other routes of misoprostol for first trimester pregnancy termination, on the assumption that the sublingual route would have a similar efficacy of the vaginal route. In addition, the sublingual route would combine an easier administration with the added advantage of no restriction of mobility after administration. There has been no previous report in the literature comparing the use of misoprostol given sublingually to that given vaginally for the second trimester termination following intrauterine fetal death. Our aim is to compare efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction with misoprostol given vaginally (the current standard) to that given sublingually.
|Oral Misoprostol Before Endometrial Biopsy
|Memorial University of Newfoundland
|An endometrial biopsy involves a thin tube being passed through the cervix (opening of the uterus) to obtain a sample of the lining of the uterus. Sometimes there may be discomfort with this procedure especially if the cervix is not dilated or opened. Previous research has suggested that taking a drug called misoprostol may help the cervix to start to dilate or open. This study will see if misoprostol will help open the cervix for an endometrial biopsy, to lessen the discomfort and make the biopsy easier to perform.
|Treatment of Late Abortion: Evacuatio Uteri or Conservative Treatment
|A randomize trial: expectation or evacuatio uteri for the treatment after late abortion
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