T-cell vaccination with viral vectors via mechanical epidermal disruption
Attenuated, replication-deficient viruses such as vaccinia viruses are used to deliver an exogenous viral, bacterial, parasitic or tumor antigen to an epidermal tissue such as the skin, lungs or gastrointestinal tract, which has been mechanically disrupted, in an amount effective to elicit or stimulate a cell mediated immune response. The epidermal tissue may be mechanically disrupted by a device such as a scarification needle or an abrader device. The epidermis may be mechanically disrupted prior to, at the same time, or immediately after the administration of the vaccine. The vaccine can be used to induce immunity against a pathogen, such as a virus, bacteria, or parasite, or against a cancer in a subject that has or is at risk of developing cancer. In some embodiments a co-stimulatory molecule, a growth factor, an adjuvant and/or a cytokine is administered before, with or after the viral vaccine. In some embodiments, the co-stimulatory molecule is co-expressed with the antigen by the virus.
Kupper; Thomas S. (Weston, MA), Liu; Luzheng (Vernon Hills, IL), Clark; Rachael A. (Belmont, MA)
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