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Claims for Patent: 5,571,698

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Summary for Patent: 5,571,698
Title: Directed evolution of novel binding proteins
Abstract:In order to obtain a novel binding protein against a chosen target, DNA molecules, each encoding a protein comprising one of a family of similar potential binding domains and a structural signal calling for the display of the protein on the outer surface of a chosen bacterial cell, bacterial spore or phage (genetic package) are introduced into a genetic package. The protein is expressed and the potential binding domain is displayed on the outer surface of the package. The cells or viruses bearing the binding domains which recognize the target molecule are isolated and amplified. The successful binding domains are then characterized. One or more of these successful binding domains is used as a model for the design of a new family of potential binding domains, and the process is repeated until a novel binding domain having a desired affinity for the target molecule is obtained. In one embodiment, the first family of potential binding domains is related to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the genetic package is M13 phage, and the protein includes the outer surface transport signal of the M13 gene III protein.
Inventor(s): Ladner; Robert C. (Ijamsville, MD), Guterman; Sonia K. (Belmont, MA), Roberts; Bruce L. (Milford, MA), Markland; William (Milford, MA), Ley; Arthur C. (Newton, MA), Kent; Rachel B. (Boxborough, MA)
Assignee: Protein Engineering Corporation (Cambridge, MA)
Application Number:08/057,667
Patent Litigation and PTAB cases: See patent lawsuits and PTAB cases for patent 5,571,698
Patent Claims:1. A method of obtaining a nucleic acid encoding a binding protein having a proteinaceous binding domain that binds a predetermined target material comprising:

a) preparing a variegated population of amplifiable genetic packages, said genetic packages being selected from the group consisting of cells, spores and viruses, each said genetic package being genetically alterable and having an outer surface including a genetically determined outer surface protein, each package including a first nucleic acid construct coding for a chimeric potential binding protein, each said chimeric protein comprising and each said construct comprising nucleic acid encoding (i) a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a predetermined domain of a predetermined parental protein other than a single chain antibody, and (ii) an outer surface transport signal for obtaining the display of the potential binding domain on the outer surface of the genetic package, the expression of which construct results in the display of said chimeric potential binding protein and its potential binding domain on the outer surface of said genetic package; and wherein said variegated population of genetic packages collectively display a plurality of different potential binding domains, the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurring through the at least partially random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said parental binding domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids; the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in statistically predetermined expected proportions, said genetic packages being amplifiable in cell culture and separable on the basis of the potential binding domain displayed thereon,

b) causing the expression of said chimeric potential binding proteins and the display of said potential binding domains on the outer surface of said packages;

c) contacting said packages with the predetermined target material such that said potential binding domains and the target material may interact;

d) separating packages displaying a potential binding domain that binds the target material from packages that do not so bind, and

e) recovering at least one package displaying on its outer surface a chimeric binding protein comprising a successful binding domain (SBD) which bound said target, said package comprising nucleic acid encoding said successful binding domain, and amplifying said SBD-encoding nucleic acid in vivo or in vitro,

with the proviso that when the target is an antibody, the predetermined parental protein is not an antigen specifically bound by that antibody.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the parental protein is not an antibody and the mutated domain is not an antibody domain.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein, in said step (a), the differentiation among said potential binding domains of said variegated population is limited to no more than about 20 predetermined amino acid residues of said sequence and where the permissible variation at said alterable residue positions is also predetermined.

4. The method of claim 3, further comprising the steps of: (f) determining the amino acid sequence of a successful binding domain and (g) preparing a new variegated population of replicable genetic packages according to said step (a), the parental binding domain for the potential binding domains of said new packages being a successful binding domain whose sequence was determined in step (f), and repeating steps (b)-(e) with said new population.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein a potential binding domain is considered successful only if it has at least a certain predetermined degree of affinity for target material, the required degree of affinity being increased for each new variegated population, and wherein each new variegated population dislays its parental binding domain in detectable amounts.

6. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental binding domain has a melting point of at least 50.degree. C.

7. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental potential binding domain is selected from the group consisting of (a) binding domains of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, crambin, Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III, heat-stable enterotoxin of Excherichia coli, .alpha. Conotoxin GI, .mu.Conotoxin GIII, .omega. Conotoxin GIV, apamin, charybdotoxin, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, cystatin, eglin, barley protease inhibitor, ovomucoid, T4 lysozyme, hen egg white lysozyme, ribonuclease, azurin, tumor necrosis factor, and CD4, and (b) domains at least substantially homologous with any of the foregoing domains which have a melting point of at least 50.degree. C.

8. The method of claim 3, further comprising determining which amino acid residues of said parental binding domain are likely to lie on the surface of said domain and limiting the variegation to codons encoding such amino acids.

9. The method of claim 3, said target material comprising one or more discrete molecules, said parental potential binding domain being characterized as a sequence of amino acids, further comprising identifying an interaction set of amino acids which are on the surface of the parental potential binding domain and which can all simultaneously touch a single molecule of the target material, and obtaining a variegated population wherein for each amino acid residue in said interaction set there is at least one potential binding domain wherein a different amino acid is substituted therefor, said interaction set comprising from about eight to about sixteen residues.

10. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental binding domain is not a binding domain of a binding protein for the predetermined target.

11. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental binding domain contains no more than 30 residues and at least 2 disulfides.

12. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental binding domain contains no more than 60 residues and at least 3 disulfides.

13. The method of claim 3 wherein the initially chosen parental binding domain contains no more than 80 residues and at least 4 disulfides.

14. The method of claim 2 wherein the genetic package is a single-stranded DNA bacteriophage other than bacteriophage lambda and the package is replicated in a bacterial host cell.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein said construct further comprises a cytoplasmic secretion signal sequence which codes for a signal peptide which directs the immediate expression product to the inner membrane of the bacterial host cell infected by said phage where it is processed to remove said signal peptide, yielding a mature chimeric protein comprising the potential binding domain and at least a portion of a coat protein of the phage, said chimeric protein being assembled with wild-type coat protein into the phage coat so that said phage displays the potential binding domain on the surface of its coat.

16. The method of claim 15 wherein the secretion signal sequence is derived from a first gene, and the nucleic acid sequence encoding the outer surface transport signal is derived from a second gene, the first and second genes being different.

17. The method of claim 15 wherein the secretion signal is encoded by a signal sequence selected from the group consisting of the signal sequences of the phoA, bla and geneIII genes.

18. The method of claims 14 wherein the replicable genetic package is a filamentous phage.

19. The method of claim 18 wherein the outer surface. transport signal is provided by the major coat protein of a filamentous phage or a assemblable fragment thereof.

20. The method of claim 18 wherein the outer surface transport signal is provided by the gene III protein of a filamentous phage or an assemblable fragment thereof.

21. The method of claim 2 wherein the replicable genetic package is a bacterial cell and said DNA construct further comprises a periplasmic secretion signal sequence.

22. The method of claim 21 wherein the bacterial cell is selected from the group consisting of strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Bacillus subtilis.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein the outer surface transport signal is derived from a bacterial outer surface protein selected from the group consisting of the lamB protein, OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, Phospholipase A, and pilin, or an assemblable segment thereof.

24. The method of claim 23 wherein the chimeric surface protein substantially corresponds to LamB with the foreign potential binding domain inserted at 153.

25. The method of claim 23 wherein the chimeric potential binding protein substantially corresponds to the first 153 amino acids of Lamb fused in frame to the potential binding domain.

26. The method of claim 2 wherein the replicable genetic package is a bacterial spore.

27. The method of claim 26 wherein the bacterial spore is a Bacillus endospore.

28. The method of claim 27 wherein the replicable genetic package is an endospore of a strain of B. subtilis.

29. The method of claim 28 wherein the outer surface transport signal is the cotA, cotB, cotC or cotD protein or an assemblable segment thereof.

30. The method of claim 2 wherein the potential binding proteins are intergeneric chimeric proteins.

31. The method of claim 2 wherein said population is characterized by the display of at least 10.sup.5 different potential binding domains.

32. The method of claim 2 wherein, for any potentially encoded potential binding domain, the probability that it will be displayed by at least one package in said population is at least 50%.

33. The method of claim 32 wherein, for any potentially encoded potential binding domain, the probability that it will be displayed by at least one package in said population is at least 90%.

34. The method of claim 1, said potential binding domain being a mini-protein sequence of less than about sixty amino acids and having at least one intrachain covalent crosslink between a first amino acid position and a second amino acid position thereof, the amino acids at said first and second positions being invariant in all of the chimeric proteins displayed by said population.

35. The method of claim 34 wherein the crosslink is a disulfide bond and the the amino acids at the first and second, amino acid positions are cysteines.

36. The method of claim 35 in which the mini-protein domain has a single disulfide bond and the span of the bond is not more than nine amino acid residues.

37. The method of claim 35 wherein the mini-protein domain has a disulfide bond which bridges a sequence of amino acids which under affinity separation conditions collectively assume a hairpin supersecondary structure.

38. The method of claim 37 wherein the hairpin secondary structure is selected from the group consisting of (a) an .alpha. helix, a turn, and a .beta. strand; (b) an .alpha. helix, a turn, and an .alpha. helix; and (c) a .beta. strand, a turn, and a .beta. strand.

39. The method of claim 35 wherein the mini-protein domain comprises a plurality of intrachain disulfide bonds.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein the mini-protein domain has two disulfide bonds having a connectivity pattern of 1-3 , 2-4.

41. The method of claim 40 wherein the mini-protein domain substantially corresponds in sequence to an .alpha.-conotoxin.

42. The method of claim 39 wherein the mini-protein domain has three disulfide bonds having a connectivity pattern of 1-4, 2-5, 3-6.

43. The method of claim 42 wherein the mini-protein domain substantially corresponds in sequence to a mu- or omega-conotoxin.

44. The method of claim 39 wherein the mini-protein domain substantially corresponds in sequence to a mini-protein selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli heat stable toxin I (ST.sub.A), the bee venom apamin, or a squash-seed trypsin inhibitor, the scorpion toxin, charybdotoxin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor.

45. The method of claim 2 wherein the population of replicable genetic packages of step (a) is obtained by:

i) preparing a variegated population of DNA inserts, said inserts comprising a plurality of variegated codons, which collectively encode a plurality of different potential binding domains, and

ii) incorporating the resulting population of DNA inserts into the chosen replicable genetic packages to produce a variegated population of replicable genetic packages.

46. The method of claim 45 in which at least one variegated codon is a simply variegated codon selected from the group consisting of NNT, NNG, RNG, RMG, VNT, RRS, and SNT.

47. The method of claim 45 wherein none of the variegated codons is a simply variegated codon selected from the group consisting of NNN, NNK and NNS.

48. The method of claim 45 in which at least one variegated codon is a complexly variegated codon.

49. The method of claim 48 in which the complexly variegated codon is prepared so as to yield a ratio of most favored amino acid to least favored amino acid which is less than 2.6.

50. The method of claim 48 wherein the distribution of nucleotides incorporated at said complexly variegated codon is further chosen to yield the largest value for the quantity {(1.-abundance(stop codons)) times (abundance of the least abundant amino acid)/(abundance of the most abundant amino acid)}.

51. The method of claim 50 wherein the distribution of nucleotides incorporated at said variegated codon is chosen to yield substantially equal abundances of acidic and basic amino acids.

52. The method of claim 50 wherein at least one variegated codon provides at least ten different amino acids at not less than 5% abundance.

53. The method of claim 45 wherein for at least one variegated codon the ratio of amino acids encoded to possible. trinucleotide sequences is at least 2:3.

54. The method of claim 45 wherein for at least one. variegated codon there are at least four equally most-favored amino acids.

55. The method of claim 45 wherein the ratio of amino acid sequences encoded to possible polynucleotide sequences is at least 1:3.

56. The method of claim 1, wherein the method further comprises (i) isolating from the first nucleic acid construct of a package bearing a successful binding domain, a nucleic acid fragment consisting essentially of nucleic acid encoding said successful binding domain, or (ii) determining enough of the sequence of the first nucleic acid construct of (i) above to deduce the amino acid sequence of the successful binding domain and then preparing a second nucleic acid construct comprising nucleic acid encoding the successful binding domain, said first and second nucleic acid constructs encoding different proteins.

57. The method of claim 56 wherein the second nucleic acid construct encodes a second binding protein consisting essentially of said successful binding domain.

58. The method of claim 1 wherein the parental protein is a single domain protein.

59. A method of producing a binding protein which binds a predetermined target material which comprises:

(i) obtaining, by the method of claim 1, a first nucleic acid construct encoding a chimeric binding protein having a binding domain which binds the predetermined target material, and

(ii) producing either said chimeric binding protein, or a second binding protein having essentially the same binding domain.

60. The method of claim 59 wherein the sequence of the binding domain is determined by sequencing at least a portion of either said first nucleic acid construct or said chimeric binding protein, and the determined sequence is then used to guide production of said second binding protein.

61. The method of claim 59 wherein said second binding protein is produced by expressing a second nucleic acid construct derived at least in part from the first nucleic acid construct.

62. The method of claim 59 wherein the second binding protein is produced by recombinant DNA techniques.

63. The method of claim 59 wherein the second binding protein is produced by nonbiological peptide synthesis techniques.

64. The method of claim 59 wherein the second binding protein consists essentially of said successful binding domain.

65. In a process for developing novel binding proteins, other than single chain antibodies, with a desired binding activity against a particular target material, by mutagenesis of a gene encoding a known protein other than a single chain antibody, the improvement comprising displaying a proteinaceous potential binding domain on the outer surface of an amplifiable genetic package selected from the group consisting of cells, spores and viruses, each said genetic package being genetically alterable, said potential binding domain not being natively associated with the outer surface of said package, said package containing the gene encoding said binding domain and means for directing said domain to the outer surface of said package, contacting the package with the target material, and determining whether the package displaying the potential binding domain binds to said target material, with the proviso that when the target is an antibody,the predetermined parental protein is not an antigen specifically bound by that antibody.

66. The process of claim 65 wherein the known protein is not an antibody and the mutated domain is not an antibody domain.

67. A variegated population of replicable genetic packages, each package including a nucleic acid construct coding for a chimeric potential binding protein, each said construct comprising DNA encoding (i) a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a predetermined parental binding domain, and (ii) an outer surface transport signal for obtaining the display of the potential binding domain on the outer surface of the genetic package, wherein said initial binding domain is not a single chain antibody and is not identical to or substantially homologous with a binding domain natively associated with said transport signal, and wherein said variegated population of genetic packages collectively display a plurality of different potential binding domains, the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurring through the at least partially random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said parental binding domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions.

68. A variegated population of DNA molecules encoding chimeric binding proteins, each said chimeric binding protein comprising (i) a binding domain, and (ii) at least a segment of an outer surface protein of a cell or virus, said segment acting to cause the display of the chimeric binding protein or a processed form thereof on the outer surface of the cell or virus, said binding domain being capable of binding to a target material to which said outer surface protein is not capable of preferentially binding, wherein said variegated population of DNA molecules encode chimeric binding proteins which collectively include a plurality of different binding domains, the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurring through the at least partially random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions thereof to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions.

69. A process for developing novel binding proteins with a desired binding activity against a particular target material which comprises providing a library of phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising (a) a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, as well as (b) at least a functional portion of a coat protein native to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target material, and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the target materials characterized in that said chimeric coat protein further comprises a linker peptide which is specifically cleavable by a site-specific proteases said linker peptide being positioned in between (a) said epitope or potential binding domain, and (b) said native coat protein sequence, whereby (a) may be freed from (b).

70. The method of claim 69 wherein the site. specific protease is Factor Xa, Factor XIa, kallikrein, thrombin, Factor XIIa, collagenase or enterokinase.

71. The method of claim 69 wherein, after said library of phage is contacted with said target material, (1) low affinity phage are removed, (2) high affinity phage still bound to said target material are released by cleavage of said chimeric coat protein at said linker by means of a site-specific protease, and the released high affinity phage are recovered.

72. The method of claims 69 wherein the phage further comprises a second phage gene encoding the cognate wild-type coat protein of the phage.

73. A process for developing novel binding proteins with a desired binding activity against a particular target material which comprises providing a library of phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target material, and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the target material, characterized in that said potential binding domain has at least one intrachain covalent crosslink between a first amino acid position and a second amino acid position thereof, the amino acids at said first and second positions being invariant in all of the chimeric proteins displayed by said library, and where low affinity phage are removed from said target material first, and then high affinity phage are released or rendered more readily eluted from the target material by treating the phage with a reagent which cleaves the crosslink.

74. The method of claim 73 in which the cleaving reagent does not kill the phage.

75. The method of claim 73 wherein the crosslink is a disulfide bond and the amino acids at said first and second positions are cysteines.

76. The method of claim 75 wherein the reagent is dithiothreitol.

77. The method of claim 73 wherein the phage further comprises a second phage gene encoding the cognate wild-type coat protein of the phage.

78. A process for developing binding proteins with a desired binding activity against a particular target material which comprises providing a library of phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising a potential epitope, or a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential epitomes or binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target material, and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the target material, characterized in that the chimeric coat protein includes only an assemblable fragment of a coat protein of said phage, and not that portion of the coat protein which is responsible for pilus binding, and the phage also comprises a second phage gene encoding the cognate native coat protein of the phage.

79. The process of claim 78 wherein the initiation codon of the second phage gene is a CTG codon.

80. A process for developing binding proteins with a desired binding activity against a particular target material which comprises providing a library of phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat, protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target material, and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the target material, characterized in that the phage also comprises a second phage gene encoding the cognate native coat protein of the phage, and the initiation codon of the second phage gene is a Leucine codon.

81. A library of display phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target material, and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the binding protein target material, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the at least partially random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, and in substantially all sets the ratio of the frequency of occurrence of the most favored amino acid to that for the least favored amino acid is less than 2.6, characterized in that, at at least one such position, the predetermined set consists of less than all twenty different genetically encodable amino acids, but includes three or more of the classes of genetically encodable amino acids.

82. A library of display phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising (a) a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, as well as (b) at least a functional portion of a coat protein native to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein said chimeric coat protein further comprises a linker peptide which is specifically cleavable by said site-specific protease, said linker peptide being positioned inbetween (a) said potential binding domain, and (b) said native coat protein sequence, whereby (a) may be freed from (b).

83. A process for developing novel binding proteins with a desired binding activity against a particular target material which comprises providing a library of phage which each displays on its surface, as a result of expression of a first phage gene, one or more copies of a particular chimeric coat protein, each chimeric coat protein comprising (a) a potential binding domain which is a mutant of a known protein domain foreign to said phage, as well as (b) at least a functional portion of a coat protein native to said phage, said library collectively displaying a plurality of potential binding domains, wherein the differentiation among said plurality of different potential binding domains occurs through the controlled random variation of one or more predetermined amino acid positions of said known domain to randomly obtain at each said position an amino acid belonging to a predetermined set of two or more amino acids, the amino acids of said set occurring at said position in predetermined expected proportions, contacting said library of phage with the target materials and separating the phage on the basis of their affinity for the target material, wherein the phage gene encoding said chimeric coat protein further comprises a cytoplasmic secretion signal sequence which codes for a signal peptide which directs the immediate expression product to the inner membrane of the bacterial host cell infected by said phage, where it is processed to remove said signal peptide, yielding a mature chimeric coat protein comprising the potential binding domain and at least a portion of a geneVIII like protein of the phage, said chimeric protein being assembled with wild-type coat protein into the phage coat, wherein the secretion signal is encoded by a signal sequence selected from the group consisting of the signal sequences of the phoA, bla and geneIII genes.

Details for Patent 5,571,698

Applicant Tradename Biologic Ingredient Dosage Form BLA Number Approval Date Patent No. Assignee Estimated Patent Expiration Status Orphan Source
Advance Biofactures SANTYL collagenase VIAL 101995 001 1965-06-04 ➤ Sign Up Protein Engineering Corporation (Cambridge, MA) 2013-11-05 RX search
>Applicant >Tradename >Biologic Ingredient >Dosage Form >BLA >Number >Approval Date >Patent No. >Assignee >Estimated Patent Expiration >Status >Orphan >Source

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