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Claims for Patent: 8,673,355

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Claims for Patent: 8,673,355

Title:Opioid agonist/antagonist combinations
Abstract: The invention is directed in part to oral dosage forms comprising a combination of an orally analgesically effective amount of an opioid agonist and an orally active opioid antagonist, the opioid antagonist being included in a ratio to the opioid agonist to provide a combination product which is analgesically effective when the combination is administered orally, but which is aversive in a physically dependent subject. Preferably, the amount of opioid antagonist included in the combination product provides at least a mildly negative, "aversive" experience in physically dependent addicts (e.g., precipitated abstinence syndrome).
Inventor(s): Kaiko; Robert F. (Weston, CT), Colucci; Robert D. (Newtown, CT)
Assignee: Purdue Pharma L.P. (Stamford, CT)
Application Number:13/337,898
Patent Claims: 1. A sustained release oral dosage form, comprising: an orally therapeutically effective dose of an opioid agonist selected from morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, codeine, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone, and mixtures thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; an opioid antagonist selected from naltrexone, naloxone, nalmephene, cyclazocine, levallorphan, and mixtures thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and a sustained release carrier incorporated into a matrix that contains the opioid agonist and the opioid antagonist; said dosage form having a ratio of opioid antagonist to opioid agonist that provides a combination product which is analgesically effective when the combination is administered orally, but which (i) is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when abused at a higher dose than said therapeutically effective dose; and (ii) maintains an analgesic effect but does not increase analgesic efficacy of said opioid agonist relative to the same therapeutic dose of opioid agonist when administered to human patients without said opioid antagonist; such that said dosage form is administrable on a twice-a-day or on a once-a-day basis.

2. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein the amount of antagonist included in the oral dosage form causes an aversive experience in a physically dependent addict taking about 2-3 times said therapeutically effective dose.

3. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

4. The oral dosage form of claim 1, further comprising an additional non-opioid drug selected from the group consisting of an NSAID, a COX-2 inhibitor, acetaminophen, aspirin, an NMDA receptor antagonist, a drug that blocks a major intracellular consequence of NMDA-receptor activation, an antitussive, an expectorant, a decongestant, an antihistamine and mixtures thereof.

5. The oral dosage form of claim 1, further comprising one or more pharmaceutically acceptable inert excipients.

6. The oral dosage form of claim 3, wherein said opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

7. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein said opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

8. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein said opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof provided in an amount that corresponds to an equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and said opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the ratio of the equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0.037:1 to about 0.296:1.

9. The oral dosage form of claim 8, wherein the ratio of the equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0.056:1 to about 0.222:1.

10. A method of preventing oral abuse of an oral opioid formulation, Comprising: preparing a sustained release oral dosage form which comprises: an orally therapeutically effective dose of an opioid agonist selected from morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, codeine, levorphanol, meperidine, methadone, and mixtures thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; and a sustained release carrier incorporated into a matrix that contains the opioid agonist; and incorporating into the matrix an opioid antagonist selected from naltrexone, naloxone, nalmephene, cyclazocine, levallorphan, and mixtures thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in a ratio to said opioid agonist such that the oral dosage form is analgesically effective when administered orally, but which (i) is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when abused at a higher dose than said therapeutically effective dose; and (ii) maintains an analgesic effect but does not increase analgesic efficacy of said opioid agonist relative to the same therapeutic dose of opioid agonist when administered to human patients without said opioid antagonist; such that said dosage form is administrable on a twice-a-day or on a once-a-day basis.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the amount of antagonist included in the oral dosage form causes an aversive experience in physically dependent addicts taking about 2-3 times said therapeutically effective dose.

12. The method of claim 10, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof provided in an amount that corresponds to an equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the ratio of the equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0.037:1 to about 0.296:1.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the ratio of the equiantagonistic amount of naltrexone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is from about 0.056:1 to about 0.222:1.

15. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein the combination is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when orally abused at a higher dose than said therapeutically effective dose.

16. The oral dosage form of claim 15, wherein the combination is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when orally abused at about 2-3 times said therapeutically effective dose.

17. The oral dosage form of claim 1, wherein the combination is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when parenterally abused at a higher dose than said therapeutically effective dose.

18. The oral dosage form of claim 17, wherein the combination is aversive in physically dependent human subjects when parenterally abused at about 2-3 times said therapeutically effective dose.

19. The method of claim 10, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

20. The method of claim 10, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

21. The oral dosage form of claim 15, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

22. The oral dosage form of claim 21, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

23. The oral dosage form of claim 15, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

24. The oral dosage form of claim 17, wherein the opioid agonist is oxycodone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

25. The oral dosage form of claim 24, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

26. The oral dosage form of claim 17, wherein the opioid antagonist is naloxone or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

27. The oral dosage form of claim 3, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

28. The oral dosage form of claim 6, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

29. The oral dosage form of claim 8, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

30. The method of claim 12, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

31. The method of claim 13, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

32. The method of claim 19, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

33. The oral dosage form of claim 21, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

34. The oral dosage form of claim 22, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

35. The oral dosage form of claim 24, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.

36. The oral dosage form of claim 25, wherein the oxycodone or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is present in the dosage form in an amount from about 2.5 mg to about 800 mg.
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