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Claims for Patent: 7,790,743

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Claims for Patent: 7,790,743

Title:Modulators of cellular adhesion
Abstract: The present invention provides compounds having formula (I): ##STR00001## and pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives thereof; wherein R.sub.1-R.sub.4, n, p, A, B, D, E, L and AR.sup.1 are as described generally and in classes and subclasses herein, and additionally provides pharmaceutical compositions thereof; and methods for the use thereof for the treatment of disorders mediated by the CD11/CD18 family of cellular adhesion molecules (e.g., LFA-1).
Inventor(s): Shen; Wang (San Mateo, CA), Barr; Kenneth (San Francisco, CA), Oslob; Johan D. (Sunnyvale, CA), Zhong; Min (Foster City, CA)
Assignee: SARcode Corporation (San Francisco, CA)
Application Number:11/934,049
Patent Claims: 1. A method of treating an immune or inflammatory disorder mediated through an interaction of a CD11a/CD18 leukointegrin with a member of the ICAM family of cellular adhesion molecules in a subject, comprising administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound that is a competitive inhibitor of said interaction, wherein said compound has a structure of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein: ##STR00218## R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each independently hydrogen, an amino acid side chain, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mOH, --(CH2).sub.maryl, --(CH2).sub.mheteroaryl, wherein m is 0-6, --CH(R.sup.1A)(OR.sup.1B), --CH(R.sup.1A)(NHR.sup.1B), U-T-Q, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic or heteroalicyclic moiety optionally substituted with U-T-Q; wherein U is absent, --O--, --S(O).sub.0-2--, --SO2N(R.sup.1A), --N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --N(R.sup.1A)--SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)--, --C(.dbd.O)--O--, --O--C(.dbd.O)--, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --OC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1A)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --O--C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --P(.dbd.O)(OR.sup.1A)--O--, or --P(.dbd.O)(R.sup.1A)--O--; T is absent, an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; Q is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, isocyanate, --OR.sup.1B; --SR.sup.1B; --N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHSO.sub.2NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, C(.dbd.S)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B , --OC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --OC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --OSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, or an aliphatic heteroaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1A and R.sup.1B is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.1C, or --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.1CR.sup.1D; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1C and R.sup.1D is independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, or an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.1E is hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --CN, --OR.sup.1C, --NR.sup.1C R.sup.1D or --SO2R.sup.1C; R.sup.3 is --C(.dbd.O)OR.sup.3A, --C(.dbd.O)H, --CH.sub.2OR.sup.3A, --CH.sub.2OC(.dbd.O)-alkyl, --C(.dbd.O)NH(R.sup.3A), --CH.sub.2X.sup.0; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.3A is independently hydrogen, a protecting group, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester, or R.sup.3A, taken together with R.sup.1 and R.sup.2, forms a heterocyclic moiety; wherein X.sup.0 is a halogen selected from F, Br or I; R.sup.4 for each occurrence, is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; n is an integer from 0-4; AR.sup.1 is a monocyclic or polycyclic aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, alicyclic or heterocyclic moiety; A, B, and E are independently CHR.sup.i; D is N; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.i is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O) NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; p is 1; L is C.dbd.O; further wherein the disorder is selected from the group consisting of psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, dermatitis, meningitis, uveitis, eczema, asthma, poison ivy, poison oak, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjorgen's syndrome, and pulmonary fibrosis; and whereby intercellular leukocyte adhesion is reduced.

2. The method of claim 1 further comprising administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound that is a competitive inhibitor of an interaction of a CD11b/CD18 leukointegrin with a member of the ICAM family of cellular adhesion molecules.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein said disorder is mediated by lymphocytes.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein said disorder is mediated by non-lymphocyte leukocytes.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein said immune or inflammatory disorder is a chronic disorder.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein said inflammatory disorder is selected from the group consisting of adult respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein said inflammatory disorder is selected from the group consisting of psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema, asthma, uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjorgen's syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, poison ivy, and poison oak.

8. The method of claim 7 wherein said inflammatory disorder is an eye disease selected from the group consisting of uveitis and Sjorgen's syndrome.

9. The method of claim 7 wherein said inflammatory disorder is selected from the group consisting of psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema, poison ivy, and poison oak.

10. The method of claim 7 wherein said inflammatory bowel disease is Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein said immune disorder is selected from the group consisting of psoriasis, uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjorgen's syndrome.

12. A method of treating a disease comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound having a structure of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein: ##STR00219## R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each independently hydrogen, an amino acid side chain, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mOH, --(CH2).sub.maryl, --(CH2).sub.mheteroaryl, wherein m is 0-6, --CH(R.sup.1A)(OR.sup.1B), --CH(R.sup.1A)(NHR.sup.1B), U-T-Q, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic or heteroalicyclic moiety optionally substituted with U-T-Q; wherein U is absent, --O--, --S(O).sub.0-2--, --SO2N(R.sup.1A), --N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --N(R.sup.1A)--SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)--, --C(.dbd.O)--O--, --O--C(.dbd.O)--, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --OC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1A)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --O--C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --P(.dbd.O)(OR.sup.1A)--O--, or --P(.dbd.O)(R.sup.1A)--O--; T is absent, an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; Q is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, isocyanate, --OR.sup.1B; --SR.sup.1B; --N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHSO.sub.2NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O) N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, C(.dbd.S)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B,--OC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --OC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --OSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, or an aliphatic heteroaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1A and R.sup.1B is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.1C, or --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.1CR.sup.1D; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1C and R.sup.1D is independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, or an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.1E is hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --CN, --OR.sup.1C, --NR.sup.1C R.sup.1D or --SO2R.sup.1C; R.sup.3 is --C(.dbd.O)OR.sup.3A, --C(.dbd.O)H, --CH.sub.2OR.sup.3A, --CH.sub.2OC(.dbd.O)-alkyl, --C(.dbd.O)NH(R.sup.3A), --CH.sub.2X.sup.0; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.3A is independently hydrogen, a protecting group, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester, or R.sup.3A, taken together with R.sup.1 and R.sup.2, forms a heterocyclic moiety; wherein X.sup.0 is a halogen selected from F, Br or I; R.sup.4 for each occurrence, is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; n is an integer from 0-4; AR.sup.1 is a monocyclic or polycyclic aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, alicyclic or heterocyclic moiety; A, B, and E are independently CHR.sup.i; D is N; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.i is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; p is 1; L is C.dbd.O; and wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of adult respiratory distress syndrome, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatitis, uveitis, eczema, asthma, poison ivy, poison oak, Sjorgen's syndrome, and pulmonary fibrosis.

13. A method of treating a disease, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a compound having a structure of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein; ##STR00220## R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each independently hydrogen, an amino acid side chain, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mOH, --(CH2).sub.maryl, --(CH2).sub.mheteroaryl, wherein m is 0-6, --CH(R.sup.1A)(OR.sup.1B), --CH(R.sup.1A)(NHR.sup.1B), U-T-Q, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic or heteroalicyclic moiety optionally substituted with U-T-Q; wherein U is absent, --O--, --S(O).sub.0-2--, --SO2N(R.sup.1A), --N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --N(R.sup.1A)--SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)--, --C(.dbd.O)--O--, --O--C(.dbd.O)--, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --OC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1A)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --O--C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --P(.dbd.O)(OR.sup.1A)--O--, or --P(.dbd.O)(R.sup.1A)--O--; T is absent, an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and Q is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, isocyanate, --OR.sup.1B; --SR.sup.1B; --N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHSO.sub.2NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, C(.dbd.S)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --OC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --OSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, or an aliphatic heteroaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1A and R.sup.1B is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.1C, or --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.1CR.sup.1D; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1C and R.sup.1D is independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, or an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.1E is hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --CN, --OR.sup.1C, --NR.sup.1C R.sup.1D or --SO2R.sup.1C; R.sup.3 is --C(.dbd.O)OR.sup.3A, --C(.dbd.O)H, --CH.sub.2OR.sup.3A, --CH.sub.2OC(.dbd.O)-alkyl, --C(.dbd.O)NH(R.sup.3A), --CH.sub.2X.sup.0; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.3A is independently hydrogen, a protecting group, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester, or R.sup.3A, taken together with R.sup.1 and R.sup.2, forms a heterocyclic moiety; wherein X.sup.0 is a halogen selected from F, Br or I; R.sup.4 for each occurrence, is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; n is an integer from 0-4; AR.sup.1 is a monocyclic or polycyclic aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, alicyclic or heterocyclic moiety; A, B, and E are independently CHR.sup.i; D is N; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.i is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O) NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; p is 1, L is C.dbd.O; and wherein said disease is rheumatoid arthritis.

14. The method of claim 1, 12 or 13 wherein said administration is systemic or local and is performed via an oral, topical, intraperitoneal, intravenous injection, depot injection, subcutaneous injection, nasal, intramuscular injection, rectal, vaginal, transdermal, or an ocular route.

15. The method of claim 1, 12 or 13 wherein said compound is administered in a formulation comprising an excipient.

16. The method of claim 15 wherein said excipient is a penetration enhancing agent.

17. The method of claim 15 wherein said formulation is a spray, a liquid, a polymeric microencapsulated matrix, an ointment, a cream, a lotion, a solid, a suppository, a drop, or a powder.

18. The method of claim 1, 12 or 13 further comprising administering a second therapeutic agent selected from the group consisting of an antiinflammatory agent, a palliative agent, and a therapeutic agent which treats disorders mediated by a CD11a/CD18 or CD11b/CD18 leukointegrin.

19. A method of inhibiting an interaction between a CD11a/CD18 leukointegrin and a member of the ICAM family of cellular adhesion molecules comprising administering to a cell an effective amount of a compound that is a competitive inhibitor of said CD11/CD18-ICAM interaction whereby said ligand/receptor interaction between said integrin and said intercellular adhesion molecule is decreased, and wherein said compound comprises a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein: ##STR00221## R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are each independently hydrogen, an amino acid side chain, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mOH, --(CH2).sub.maryl, --(CH2).sub.mheteroaryl, wherein m is 0-6, --CH(R.sup.1A)(OR.sup.1B), --CH(R.sup.1A)(NHR.sup.1B), U-T-Q, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic or heteroalicyclic moiety optionally substituted with U-T-Q; wherein U is absent, --O--, --S(O).sub.0-2--, --SO.sub.2N(R.sup.1A), --N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --N(R.sup.1A)--SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)--, --C(.dbd.O)--O--, --O--C(.dbd.O)--, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --OC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1A)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.IE)--O--, --C(.dbd.N--R.sup.IE)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --O--C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1A)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--O--, --N(R.sup.1A)C(.dbd.N--R.sup.1E)--N(R.sup.1B)--, --P(.dbd.O)(OR.sup.1A)--O--, or --P(.dbd.O)(R.sup.1A)--O--; T is absent, an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; Q is hydrogen, halogen, cyano, isocyanate, --OR.sup.1B; --SR.sup.1B; --N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --NHSO.sub.2NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --NHC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --C(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, C(.dbd.S)N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)OR.sup.1B, --SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, SO.sub.2--NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B ,--OC(.dbd.O)--N(R.sup.1B).sub.2, --OC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHC(.dbd.O)R.sup.1B, --OC(.dbd.O)NHSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, --OSO.sub.2R.sup.1B, or an aliphatic heteroaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1A and R.sup.1B is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.1C, or --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.1CR.sup.1D; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.1C and R.sup.1D is independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, or an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.1E is hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, --CN, --OR.sup.1C, --NR.sup.1C R.sup.1D or --SO.sub.2R.sup.1C; R.sup.3 is --C(.dbd.O)OR.sup.3A, --C(.dbd.O)H, --CH2OR.sup.3A, --CH2OC(.dbd.O)-alkyl, --C(.dbd.O)NH(R.sup.3A), --CH2X.sup.0; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.3A is independently hydrogen, a protecting group, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester, or R.sup.3A, taken together with R.sup.1 and R.sup.2, forms a heterocyclic moiety; wherein X.sup.0 is a halogen selected from F, Br or I; R.sup.4 for each occurrence, is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; n is an integer from 0-4; AR.sup.1 is a monocyclic or polycyclic aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, alicyclic or heterocyclic moiety; A, B, and E are independently CHR.sup.i; D is N; wherein each occurrence of R.sup.i is independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O) NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; p is 1; and, L is C.dbd.O.

20. The method of claim 19 further comprising administering to said cell a therapeutically effective amount of a compound that is a competitive inhibitor of an interaction between a CD11b/CD18 leukointegrin and a member of the ICAM family of cellular adhesion molecules.

21. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein n is 2 and R.sup.4 for each occurrence, is independently halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is GR.sup.G1.

22. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound having the following formula: ##STR00222## wherein R.sup.4A and R.sup.4B are independently hydrogen, halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1; and R.sup.B1, R.sup.B2 and R.sup.E are independently hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted C.sub.1-6 alkyl.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein R.sup.4A and R.sup.4B are independently halogen, --CN, --NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1.

24. The method of claim 23 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.4A and R.sup.4B are independently a halogen which is F, Cl, Br or I.

25. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.3 is carboxyl, protected carboxyl or a prodrug thereof, wherein R.sup.3 is C(.dbd.O)R.sup.3A, wherein R.sup.3A is hydroxy, alkoxy, cycloalkoxy, aralkoxy, arcycloalkoxy, aryloxy, alkylcarbonyloxyalkyloxy, alkoxycarbonyloxyalkyloxy, alkoxycarbonylalkyloxy, cycloalkylcarbonyloxyalkyloxy, cycloalkoxycarbonyloxyalkyloxy, cycloalkoxycarbonylalkyloxy, arylcarbonyloxyalkyloxy, aryloxycarbonyloxyalkyloxy, alkoxyalkylcarbonyloxyalkyloxy, or one of the structures: ##STR00223##

26. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having the following structure: ##STR00224## wherein Ar.sub.2 is a cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.s is hydrogen, alkyl, heteroalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, or is -G.sup.0R.sup.G1 wherein G.sup.0 is --O--, --S-- or --NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety.

27. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having the following structure: ##STR00225## wherein R.sup.1A is Ar.sub.2, --OR.sup.1B, --SR.sup.1B or --NR.sup.1BR.sup.1C; or an alkyl or heteroalkyl moiety; and Ar.sub.2 is a cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; wherein R.sup.1B and R.sup.1C are independently hydrogen, alkyl, heteroalkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, or R.sup.1B and R.sup.1C, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocylic or heteroaryl moiety.

28. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having the following structure: ##STR00226## wherein Ar.sub.2 is a cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.2A is hydrogen, C.sub.1-6alkyl, C.sub.2-6alkenyl, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.2B or --SO.sub.2R.sup.2B, wherein R.sup.2B is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl; or R.sup.2A, taken together with a substituent on Ar.sub.2, forms a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl moiety.

29. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having the following structure: ##STR00227## wherein t is 1-3; and R.sup.P3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety.

30. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00228## wherein R.sup.2A is hydrogen, C.sub.1-6alkyl, C.sub.2-6alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.2B or --SO.sub.2R.sup.2B, wherein R.sup.2B is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl; or R.sup.2A, taken together with R.sup.2C or R.sup.2D, forms a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl moiety; R.sup.2C is hydrogen, CN, --C.dbd.NMe, .dbd.NO.sub.2, .dbd.NC(.dbd.O)NH.sub.2, .dbd.NS(O).sub.2R, or .dbd.NS(O).sub.2NRR'; wherein R and R' are each independently hydrogen or methyl; R.sup.2D is Ar.sub.2, hydrogen, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.2E and R.sup.2F are each independently hydrogen, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or R.sup.2E and R.sup.2F, taken together, form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl moiety.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.2D is, or R.sup.2E and R.sup.2F together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00229## wherein s is an integer between 0 and 6; each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, CN, isocyanate, NO.sub.2, --P(.dbd.O)(YR.sup.P5).sub.2, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is -GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; each occurrence of Y is independently a bond or O; each occurrence of R.sup.P5 is independently alkyl, heteroalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, or when Y is O R.sup.P5 may also be hydrogen; and each occurrence of R.sup.P2 is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety or a nitrogen protecting group; wherein any two adjacent occurrences of R.sup.P1 and R.sup.P2 , taken together, may form a cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.2D is, or R.sup.2E and R.sup.2F together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00230## wherein each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, methyl, --OCH.sub.3, --OH, --NH.sub.2, --NHCH.sub.3, or --N(CH.sub.3).sub.2.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.2D is, or R.sup.2E and R.sup.2F together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached form a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00231##

34. The method of claim 30, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHCH(CO.sub.2R.sup.3A)CH.sub.2N(R.sup.2A)C(.dbd.NR.sup.2C)R.su- p.2D has the following structure: ##STR00232## wherein each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, methyl, --OCH.sub.3, --OH, --NH.sub.2, --NHCH.sub.3 or --N(CH.sub.3).sub.2; R.sup.2A is hydrogen, C.sub.1-6alkyl, C.sub.2-6alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.2B or --SO.sub.2R.sup.2B, wherein R.sup.2B is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl; and q is 1 or 2.

35. The method of claim 30, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHCH(CO.sub.2R.sup.3A)CH.sub.2N(R.sup.2A)C(.dbd.NR.sup.2C)R.su- p.2D has one of the following structures: ##STR00233## wherein each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, methyl, --OCH.sub.3, --OH, --NH.sub.2, --NHCH.sub.3 or --N(CH.sub.3).sub.2; R.sup.2A is hydrogen, C.sub.1-6alkyl, C.sub.2-6alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.2B or --SO.sub.2R.sup.2B, wherein R.sup.2B is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl; q is 1 or 2; and R.sup.2C is lower alkyl.

36. The method of claim 26, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.3A is independently hydrogen, lower alkyl, phenyl or benzyl.

37. The method of claim 26, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.s is hydrogen.

38. The method of claim 26, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein Ar.sub.2 has one of the following structures: ##STR00234## wherein s is an integer from 0-2; each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, CN, isocyanate, NO.sub.2, --OR.sup.G1, --S R.sup.G1, --NR.sup.G1R.sup.G2--, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; each occurrence of Y is independently a bond or O; each occurrence of R.sup.P5 is independently lower alkyl, or when Y is O R.sup.P5 may also be hydrogen; each occurrence of R.sup.P2 is independently hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety or a nitrogen protecting group; R.sup.P3 is lower alkyl or --N(R.sup.P2).sub.2; and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety.

39. The method of claim 26, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein Ar.sub.2 has one of the following structures: ##STR00235##

40. The method of claim 27, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.1A has one of the following structures: ##STR00236## wherein s is an integer between 0 and 2; each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently lower alkyl or is --GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O-- or --NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and each occurrence of R.sup.P2 is independently hydrogen, lower alkyl, aryl or heteroaryl.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.1A has one of the following structures: ##STR00237## wherein G is --O-- or --NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen or lower alkyl.

42. The method of claim 28, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --N(R.sup.2AAr.sub.2, has one of the following structures: ##STR00238## wherein X.sub.1 is N or CR.sup.P1; s is an integer from 0-5; and each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, CN, NO.sub.2, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is --GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.P3 is alkyl, heteroalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl.

43. The method of claim 26, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 has the structure --C(.dbd.O)NHC(--C(R.sup.s)Ar.sub.2)CO.sub.2R.sup.3A wherein R.sup.3A and R.sup.s, taken together, form a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic moiety.

44. The method of claim 43 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(--C(R.sup.s)Ar.sub.2)CO.sub.2R.sup.3A has one of the following structures: ##STR00239## wherein Ar.sub.2 is heterocycle, aryl or heteroaryl; and X.sub.1 is O, S or NH.

45. The method of claim 44, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein --C(.dbd.O)NHC(--C(R.sup.s)Ar.sub.2)CO.sub.2R.sup.3A has one of the following structures: ##STR00240## wherein X.sub.1 is O, S or NH; and X.sub.2 is N or CH.

46. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1 has one of the following structures: ##STR00241## wherein each occurrence of r is an integer from 0-6; X.sub.1, X.sub.2, X.sub.3 and X.sub.4 is independently N or CR.sup.Q1; X.sub.5 is O, S or NR.sup.Q2; AR.sup.3 is a heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; each occurrence of R.sup.Q1 is independently hydrogen, OR.sup.Q3, OCF.sub.3, SR.sup.Q3, halogen, CN, isocyanate, NO.sub.2, CF.sub.3, NR.sup.Q3QR.sup.Q4, --SO.sub.2R.sup.Q3, alkyl-NR.sup.Q3R.sup.Q4, alkyl-C(.dbd.O)--NR.sup.Q3R.sup.Q4, alkyl-C(.dbd.O)R.sup.Q3, or an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety, wherein each occurrence of R.sup.Q3 and R.sup.Q4 is independently hydrogen, a protecting group, or an aliphatic, heteroaliphatic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.Q2 is hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety or a nitrogen protecting group.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1 has one of the following structures: ##STR00242## wherein X.sup.0 is F or Cl; X.sub.2 is N or CR.sup.Q1; X.sub.5 is CH, O, S or NH; R.sup.Q1 is hydrogen, methyl, --CF.sub.3, --OCH.sub.3, --OCF.sub.3 or halogen.

48. The method of claim 47, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1 has one of the following structures: ##STR00243##

49. The method of claim 48, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1 has one of the following structures: ##STR00244##

50. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1--L-- has one of the following structures: ##STR00245##

51. The method of claim 50, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1--L-- has one of the following structures: ##STR00246##

52. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13, wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein AR.sup.1--L-- is a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00247## and --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00248## wherein R.sup.2A is hydrogen, C.sub.1-6alkyl, C.sub.2-6alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, --C(.dbd.O)R.sup.2B or --SO.sub.2R.sup.2B, wherein R.sup.2B is alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl; or R.sup.2A, taken together with R.sup.2D, forms a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic or heteroaryl moiety; R.sup.3A is hydrogen, a protecting group, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heteroalicyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety; and R.sup.2D is a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00249## wherein s is an integer between 0 and 6; each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, CN, isocyanate, NO.sub.2, --P(.dbd.O)(YR.sup.P5).sub.2, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety, or is --GR.sup.G1 wherein G is --O--, --S--, --NR.sup.G2--, --CO--, --SO--, --SO.sub.2--, --C(.dbd.O)O--, --C(.dbd.O)NR.sup.G2--, --OC(.dbd.O)--, --NR.sup.G2C(.dbd.O)-- or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--, and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an alkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl or alkylheteroaryl moiety; each occurrence of Y is independently a bond or O; each occurrence of R.sup.P5 is independently alkyl, heteroalkyl, aryl or heteroaryl, or when Y is O R.sup.P5 may also be hydrogen; and each occurrence of R.sup.P2 is independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aryl, heteroaryl, alkylaryl, alkylheteroaryl, heteroalkylaryl, or heteroalkylheteroaryl moiety or a nitrogen protecting group; and wherein any two adjacent occurrences of R.sup.P1 and R.sup.P2, taken together, may form a cycloalkyl, heterocyclic, aryl or heteroaryl moiety.

53. The method of claim 52 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.2A and R.sup.3A are each hydrogen.

54. The method of claim 52 wherein the compound of Formula I is a compound wherein R.sup.2D is a moiety having one of the following structures: ##STR00250##

55. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00251##

56. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00252##

57. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00253##

58. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00254##

59. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00255##

60. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00256##

61. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00257##

62. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound is: ##STR00258##

63. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound has one of the following structures: ##STR00259## ##STR00260##

64. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound has one of the following structures: ##STR00261## ##STR00262##

65. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound has one of the following structures: ##STR00263## ##STR00264## ##STR00265##

66. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound has one of the following structures: ##STR00266## ##STR00267## ##STR00268##

67. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound has one of the following structures: ##STR00269## ##STR00270##

68. The method of claim 1, 19, 12, or 13 wherein the compound having a structure of Formula I is the compound wherein: AR.sup.1 is: ##STR00271## --C(.dbd.O)NHC(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)R.sup.3 is a moiety having the following structure: ##STR00272## R.sup.3A is hydrogen; R.sup.s is hydrogen; Ar.sub.2 is: ##STR00273## s is an integer of 1 or 2; each occurrence of R.sup.PI is independently hydrogen, halogen, or --GR.sup.G1, wherein G is --SO.sub.2--, or --SO.sub.2NR.sup.G2--; and R.sup.G1 and R.sup.G2 are independently hydrogen, an aliphatic, alicyclic, heteroaliphatic, heterocyclic, aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety.

69. The method of claim 68 wherein s is an integer of 2, each occurrence of R.sup.P1 is independently hydrogen, halogen, or --GR.sup.G1, G is --SO.sub.2--, and R.sup.G1 is methyl.
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