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Claims for Patent: 7,771,707

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Claims for Patent: 7,771,707

Title:Abuse-deterrent drug formulations
Abstract: An abuse-deterrent pharmaceutical composition has been developed to reduce the likelihood of improper administration of drugs, especially drugs such as opiods. In the preferred embodiment, the drug is modified to increase its lipophilicity by forming a salt between the drug and one or more fatty acids wherein the concentration of the one or more fatty acids is one to 15 times the molar amount of the active agent, preferably two to ten times the molar amount of the active agent. In one embodiment the modified drug is homogeneously dispersed within microparticles composed of a material that is either slowly soluble or not soluble in water. In some embodiments the drug containing microparticles or drug particles are coated with one or more coating layers, where at least one coating is water insoluble and preferably organic solvent insoluble. The abuse-deterrent composition prevents the immediate release of a substantial portion of drug, even if the physical integrity of the formulation is compromised (for example, by chopping with a blade or crushing) and the resulting material is placed in water, snorted, or swallowed. However, when administered as directed, the drug is slowly released from the composition as the composition is broken down or dissolved gradually within the GI tract by a combination of enzymatic degradation, surfactant action of bile acids, and mechanical erosion.
Inventor(s): Hirsh; Jane C. (Wellesley, MA), Fleming; Alison B. (North Attleboro, MA), Rariy; Roman V. (Allston, MA), Klibanov; Alexander M. (Newton, MA)
Assignee: Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc. (Cumberland, RI)
Application Number:11/149,867
Patent Claims: 1. A solid orally administrable abuse-deterrent pharmaceutical composition of a pharmaceutically active agent prone to abuse, the composition comprising: a mixture of a therapeutically effective amount of the pharmaceutically active agent prone to abuse, and one or more fatty acids or fatty amines present in molar excess relative to the pharmaceutically active agent, wherein the pharmaceutically active agent comprises an effective amount of a fatty acid or fatty amine salt of the pharmaceutically active agent prone to abuse.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is a controlled-release pharmaceutical composition.

3. The composition of claim 1 wherein the one or more fatty acids is present in an amount from about two to about ten times the molar amount of the pharmaceutically active agent.

4. The composition of claim 1 wherein the one or more fatty amines is present in an amount from about two to about ten times the molar amount of the pharmaceutically active agent.

5. The composition of claim 1 wherein the one or more fatty acids is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.5 to C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acids, C.sub.8 to C.sub.40 divalent fatty acids and mixtures thereof.

6. The composition of claim 5 wherein the C.sub.5 to C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acid is selected from the group consisting of pentanoic acid, hexanoic (caproic) acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic (caprylic) acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic (capric) acid, undecanoic acid, dodecanoic (lauric) acid, tridecanoic acid, tetradecanoic (myristic) acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic (palmitic) acid, heptadecanoic (margaric) acid, octadecanoic (stearic) acid, nonadecanoic acid, eicosanoic (arachidic) acid, heneicosanoic acid, docosanoic (behenic) acid, tricosanoic acid, tetracosanoic (lignoceric) acid, pentacosanoic acid, hexacosanoic acid, heptacosanoic acid, octacosanoic acid, nonacosanoic acid, triacontanoic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and mixtures thereof.

7. The composition of claim 6 wherein the C.sub.5 to C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acid is a mixture of palmitic and stearic acid.

8. The composition of claim 6 wherein the C.sub.5 to C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acid is myristic acid.

9. The composition of claim 6 wherein the C.sub.5 to C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acid is stearic acid.

10. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

11. The composition of claim 10 wherein the carrier is present in an amount from 0.25 to about eight times by weight of the amount of the pharmaceutically active agent.

12. The composition of claim 10 wherein the carrier is present in an amount from two to about six times by weight of the amount of the pharmaceutically active agent.

13. The composition of claim 10 wherein the carrier is selected from the group consisting of waxes, fats, and mixtures thereof.

14. The composition of claim 13 wherein the carrier is a wax.

15. The composition of claim 14 wherein the wax is selected from the group consisting of carnauba wax, beeswax, microcrystalline wax and mixtures thereof.

16. The composition of claim 14 wherein the wax is beeswax.

17. The composition of claim 14 wherein the wax is carnauba wax.

18. The composition of claim 1 wherein the pharmaceutically active agent prone to abuse is selected from the group consisting of 1-phenylcyclohexylamine, 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile, alfentanil, alphacetylmethadol, alphaprodine, alprazolam, amobarbital, amphetamine, anileridine, apomorphine, aprobarbital, barbital, barbituric acid derivative, bemidone, benzoylecgonine, benzphetamine, betacetylmethadol, betaprodine, bezitramide, bromazepam, buprenorphine, butabarbital, butalbital, butorphanol, camazepam, cathine, chloral, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, clonazepam, clorazepate, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, cocaine, codeine, chlorphentermine, delorazepam, dexfenfluramine, dextromoramide, dextropropoxyphen, dezocine, diazepam, diethylpropion, difenoxin, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dioxaphentyl butyrate, dipanone, diphenoxylate, diprenorphine, ecgonine, enadoline, eptazocine, estazolam, ethoheptazine, ethyl loflazepate, ethylmorphine, etorphine, femproponex, fencamfamin, fenfluramine, fentanyl, fludiazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, glutethimide, halazepam, haloxazolam, hexylgon, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, isomethadone, hydrocodone, ketamine, ketazolam, ketobemidone, levanone, levoalphacetylmethadol, levomethadone, levomethadyl acetate, levomethorphan, levorphanol, lofentanil, loperamide, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, lysergic acid, lysergic acid amide, mazindol, medazepam, mefenorex, meperidine, meptazinol, metazocine, methadone, methamphetamine, methohexital, methotrimeprazine, methyldihydromorphinone, methylphenidate, methylphenobarbital, metopon, morphine, nabilone, nalbuphine, nalbupine, nalorphine, narceine, nefopam, nicomorphine, nimetazepam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, normethadone, normorphine, oxazepam, oxazolam, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pentobarbital, phenadoxone, phenazocine, phencyclidine, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, pheneridine, piminodine, prodilidine, properidine, propoxyphene, racemethorphan, racemorphan, racemoramide, remifentanil, secobarbital, sufentanil, talbutal, thebaine, thiamylal, thiopental, tramadol, trimeperidine, vinbarbital, allobarbitone, alprazolam, amylobarbitone, aprobarbital, barbital, barbitone, benzphetamine, brallobarbital, bromazepam, brotizolam, buspirone, butalbital, butobarbitone, butorphanol, camazepam, captodiame, carbromal, carfentanil, carpipramine, cathine, chloral, chloral betaine, chloral hydrate, chloralose, chlordiazepoxide, chlorhexadol, chlormethiazole edisylate, chlormezanone, cinolazepam, clobazam, potassium clorazepate, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, cyclobarbitone, delorazepam, dexfenfluramine, diazepam, diethylpropion, difebarbamate, difenoxin, enciprazine, estazolam, ethyl loflazepate, etizolam, febarbamate, fencamfamin, fenfluramine, fenproporex, fluanisone, fludiazepam, flunitraam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, flutoprazepam, gepirone, glutethimide, halazepam, haloxazolam, hexobarbitone, ibomal, ipsapirone, ketazolam, loprazolam mesylate, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mazindol, mebutamate, medazepam, mefenorex, mephobarbital, meprobamate, metaclazepam, methaqualone, methohexital, methylpentynol, methylphenobarbital, midazolam, milazolam, morphine, nimetazepam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, oxazolam, paraldehyde, pemoline, pentabarbitone, pentazocine, pentobarbital, phencyclidine, phenobarbital, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phenprobamate, phentermine, phenyacetone, pinazepam, pipradol, prazepam, proxibarbal, quazepam, quinalbaritone, secobarbital, secbutobarbitone, sibutramine, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, triclofos, zalepan, zaleplon, zolazepam, zolpidem, and zopiclone.

19. The composition of claim 18 wherein the pharmaceutically active agent is oxycodone.

20. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a pharmaceutically active agent that has no abuse potential.

21. The composition of claim 1, wherein the drug is incorporated into a plurality of individual microparticles comprising a material that is either slowly soluble in water or water insoluble.

22. The composition of claim 21 wherein the microparticles comprise a wax or wax-like material.

23. The composition of claim 21 wherein the microparticles comprise a fat or a fatty substance.

24. The composition of claim 21 wherein the microparticles comprise a material selected from the group consisting of naturally water insoluble proteins, naturally water insoluble polysaccharides, naturally water insoluble lipids and phospholipids, cross-linked water soluble proteins, cross-linked water soluble polysaccharides, cross-linked water soluble cyclodextrins and combinations thereof.

25. The composition of claim 21 wherein the individual microparticles are coated with one or more independent layers, where at least one of the layers is water insoluble.

26. The composition of claim 25 wherein at least one of the layers is alcohol-insoluble.

27. The composition of claim 1 administered in a tablet or capsule.

28. A method of manufacturing a solid, orally administrable abuse-deterrent pharmaceutical formulation of a drug prone to abuse, the method comprising mixing together a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutically active agent prone to abuse and one or more fatty acids or fatty amines present in molar excess relative to the pharmaceutically active agent wherein the active agent comprises an effective amount of a fatty acid or fatty amine salt of the active agent prone to abuse, wherein the mixture forms a single phase when heated to a temperature above the melting point of the one or more fatty acids or fatty amines but below the melting point of the active agent.

29. The composition of claim 6, wherein the C.sub.5-C.sub.30 monovalent fatty acid is palmitic acid.

30. The composition of claim 14, wherein the wax is a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax.
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