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Claims for Patent: 7,459,428

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Claims for Patent: 7,459,428

Title:Method of regulating glucose metabolism, and reagents related thereto
Abstract:One aspect of the present invention relates to a method for treating Type II diabetes in an animal, comprising conjointly administering to the animal metformin and an inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase IV or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient to treat Type II diabetes of the animal.
Inventor(s): Bachovchin; William W. (Melrose, MA), Plaut; Andrew G. (Lexington, MA), Drucker; Daniel (Toronto, CA)
Assignee: Trustees of Tufts College (Medford, MA) New England Medical Center Hospitals, Inc. (Boston, MA) 1149336 Ontario, Inc. (Toronto, Ontario, CA)
Application Number:11/487,947
Patent Claims: 1. A method for treating Type II diabetes in an animal, comprising conjointly administering to the animal metformin and an inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase IV or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient to treat Type II diabetes, wherein the amount of said inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase IV or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof is not sufficient to suppress the immune system of the animal.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor reduces insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, or hyperinsulinemia.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor has an EC.sub.50 for modification of glucose metabolism which is at least one order of magnitude less than its EC.sub.50 for immunosuppression.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor has a K.sub.i for dipeptidylpeptidase IV inhibition of 10 nM or less.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor has a K.sub.i for dipeptidylpeptidase IV inhibition of 1.0 nM or less.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor has a molecular weight less than 7500 amu.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor is administered orally.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor is a peptidomimetic of a peptide selected from the group consisting of Pro-Pro, Ala-Pro, and (D)-Ala-(L)-Ala.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor is represented by Formula I: ##STR00039## wherein, A represents a 4-8 membered heterocycle including a N and a C.alpha. carbon; Z represents C or N; W represents CN, --CH.dbd.NR.sub.5, ##STR00040## R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue, a C-terminally linked amino acid analog, a C-terminally linked peptide, a C-terminally linked peptide analog, an amino-protecting group ##STR00041## R.sub.2 is absent or represents one or more substitutions to the ring A, each of which can independently be a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mOH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; if Z is N, R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen; if Z is C, R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen, a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2.sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.5 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, --C(X.sub.1)(X.sub.2)X.sub.3, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(O)C(O)NH.sub.2, or --C(O)C(O)OR'.sub.7, R.sub.6 represents a hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, an aryl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mR.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mS-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, ##STR00042## R.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R'.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, hydrogen, a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 each independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(.dbd.O)-alikyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkenyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkynyl, or --C(.dbd.O)--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, or R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; R.sub.50 represents O or S; R.sub.51 represents N.sub.3, SH, NH.sub.2, NO.sub.2 or OR'.sub.7; R.sub.52 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl, an amine, OR'.sub.7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or R.sub.51 and R.sub.52 taken together with the phosphorous atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 independently each represent a hydroxyl group or a group capable of being hydrolyzed to a hydroxyl group, or Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 together, including the boron to which they are bound, form a 5-8 membered cyclic derivative which is capable of being hydrolyzed to hydroxyl groups; X.sub.1 represents a halogen; X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 each represent a hydrogen or a halogen; m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8; and n is an integer in the range of 1 to 8.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the ring A is represented by the formula: ##STR00043## wherein, k is an integer of 1 or 2.

11. The method of claim 9, wherein W represent ##STR00044##

12. The method of claim 9, wherein R.sub.1 represents ##STR00045## wherein, R.sub.36 represents a small hydrophobic group and R.sub.38 is hydrogen, or, R.sub.36 and R.sub.38 together form a 4-7 membered heterocycle including the N and the C.alpha. carbon, as defined for A above; and R.sub.40 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group.

13. The method of claim 9, wherein R.sub.2 is absent.

14. The method of claim 9, wherein R.sub.3 is a hydrogen.

15. The method of claim 9, wherein R.sub.5 is a hydrogen.

16. The method of claim 9, wherein X.sub.1 is a fluorine, and X.sub.2 and X.sub.3, if halogens, are fluorine.

17. The method of claim 9, wherein the inhibitor is represented by Formula (II): ##STR00046## wherein, R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue a C-terminally linked amino acid analog, a C-terminally linked peptide, a C-terminally linked peptide analog, ##STR00047## R.sub.7 represents an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkenyl, or a heterocycle; and R.sub.11 and R.sub.12 each independently represent hydrogen, an alkyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or R.sub.11 and R.sub.12 taken together with the O--B--O atoms to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure.

18. The method of claim 9, wherein the inhibitor is represented by Formula III: ##STR00048## wherein, R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue a C-terminally linked amino acid analog, a C-terminally linked peptide, a C-terminally linked peptide analog ##STR00049## R.sub.7 represents an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkenyl, or a heterocycle.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the Formula IV: ##STR00050## wherein, R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue a C-terminally linked amino acid analog, a C-terminally linked peptide, a C-terminally linked peptide analog, ##STR00051## R.sub.6 represents a hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, an aryl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.mS-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, ##STR00052## R.sub.7 represents an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkenyl, or a heterocycle; R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 each independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(.dbd.O)-alikyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkenyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkynyl, or --C(.dbd.O)--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, or R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; X.sub.1, X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 each represent a hydrogen or a halogen; m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8; and n is an integer in the range of 1 to 8.

20. The method of claim 9, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the Formula Xa or Xb: ##STR00053## wherein, A represents a 4- to 8-membered heterocycle including a N and a C.alpha. carbon; W represents CN, --CHNR.sub.5, ##STR00054## R.sub.2 is absent or represents one or more substitutions to the ring A, each of which can independently be a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen or a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.5 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, --C(X.sub.1)(X.sub.2)X.sub.3, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(O)C(O)NH.sub.2, or --C(O)C(O)OR'.sub.7, R.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R'.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, hydrogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R.sub.32 is a small hydrophobic group; R.sub.30 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group; R.sub.50 represents O or S; R.sub.51 represents N.sub.3, SH, NH.sub.2, NO.sub.2 or OR'.sub.7; R.sub.52 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl, an amine, OR'.sub.7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or R.sub.51 and R.sub.52 taken together with the phosphorous atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 independently represent a hydroxyl group or a group capable of being hydrolyzed to a hydroxyl group, or Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 together, including the boron to which they are bound, form a 5-8 membered cyclic derivative which is capable of being hydrolyzed to hydroxyl groups; X.sub.1 represents a halogen; X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 each represent a hydrogen or a halogen; m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8; and n is an integer in the range of 1 to 8.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein said conjointly administering is achieved by simultaneous dosing of the individual components.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein said conjointly administering is achieved by sequential dosing of the individual components.

23. The method of claim 1, wherein said conjointly administering is achieved by separate dosing of the individual components.

24. The method of claim 1, wherein said conjointly administering is achieved by dosing the individual components in the same composition.
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