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Claims for Patent: 7,270,800

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Claims for Patent: 7,270,800

Title:Thioflavin derivatives for use in antemortem diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and in vivo imaging and prevention of amyloid deposition
Abstract: This invention relates to novel thioflavin derivatives, methods of using the derivatives in, for example, in vivo imaging of patients having neuritic plaques, pharmaceutical compositions comprising the thioflavin derivatives and method of synthesizing the compounds. The compounds find particular use in the diagnosis and treatment of patients having diseases where accumulation of neuritic plaques are prevalent. The disease states or maladies include but are not limited to Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, Down's Syndrome and homozygotes for the apolipoprotein E4 allele.
Inventor(s): Klunk; William E. (Pittsburgh, PA), Mathis, Jr.; Chester A. (Pittsburgh, PA), Wang; Yanming (Imperial, PA)
Assignee: University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA)
Application Number:10/388,173
Patent Claims: 1. An amyloid binding compound having a structure selected from the group consisting of: ##STR00029## ##STR00030## ##STR00031## ##STR00032##

2. An amyloid binding compound having a structure selected from the group consisting of: ##STR00033## ##STR00034## ##STR00035## ##STR00036## ##STR00037## ##STR00038## wherein at least one of the substituents in each of the formulae 1-34, 36, and 38-45 is replaced with a substituent selected from the group consisting of .sup.3H, .sup.131I, .sup.125I, .sup.123I, .sup.76Br, .sup.75Br, .sup.18F, .sup.19F, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--X*, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--X*, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--X*, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--X*, wherein X*=.sup.131I, .sup.123I, .sup.76Br, .sup.75Br or .sup.18F, a carbon-containing substituent selected from the group consisting of lower alkyl, (CH.sub.2).sub.nOR', CF.sub.3, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, CN, (C.dbd.O)--R', (C.dbd.O)N(R').sub.2, O(CO)R', COOR', CR'.dbd.CR'--R.sub.ph, and CR.sub.2'--CR.sub.2'--R.sub.ph, wherein X=F, Cl, Br or I, at least one carbon is .sup.11C, .sup.13C or .sup.14C, R' is H or a lower alkyl, and R.sub.ph is an unsubstituted or substituted phenyl group, with the phenyl substituents being selected from the group consisting of F, Cl, Br, I, a lower alkyl group, (CH.sub.2).sub.nOR' (wherein n=1, 2, or 3), CF.sub.3, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, O--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2--CH.sub.2X, CN, (C.dbd.O)--R', N(R').sub.2, NO.sub.2, (C.dbd.O)N(R').sub.2, O(CO)R', OR', SR' and COOR'), and a chelating group (with chelated metal group) of the form W-L* or V-W-L*, wherein V is selected from the group consisting of --COO--, --CO--, --CH.sub.2O-- and --CH.sub.2NH--, W is --(CH.sub.2).sub.n where n=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, and L* is: ##STR00039## wherein M* is .sup.99mTc).

3. A method of detecting amyloid plaques in a patient in need thereof, comprising (A) administering to said patient a detectable amount of a compound as claimed in claim 2 and (B) detecting the binding of the compound to amyloid deposits in the patient.

4. A method of synthesizing a compound selected from the group consisting of ##STR00040## ##STR00041## ##STR00042## ##STR00043## ##STR00044## ##STR00045## wherein at least one of the atoms in each of the formulae 1-34, 36, and 38-45 is replaced by a member selected from the group consisting of .sup.131I, .sup.125I, .sup.123I, .sup.76Br, .sup.75Br, .sup.18F, and .sup.19F, the method comprising reacting a tri-alkyl tin derivative of a compound according to one of formulae 1-34, 36, and 38-45 with a halogenating agent containing .sup.131I, .sup.125I, .sup.123I, .sup.76Br, .sup.75Br, .sup.18F, or .sup.19F.

5. A pharmaceutical composition for in vivo imaging of amyloid deposits, comprising (a) a compound of claim 2 and (b) a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

6. An in vivo method for detecting amyloid deposits in a subject, comprising the steps of: (a) administering a detectable quantity of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound as claimed in claim 2 and (b) detecting the binding of the compound to amyloid deposits in the subject, wherein the detecting is selected from the group consisting of gamma imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the amyloid deposit is located in the brain of a subject.

8. The method of claim 6, wherein the subject is suspected of having a disease or syndrome selected from the group consisting of Alzheimer's Disease, familial Alzheimer's Disease, Down's Syndrome and homozygotes for the apolipoprotein E4 allele.

9. The method of claim 6, wherein the detecting is done by gamma imaging, and the gamma imaging is either PET or SPECT.

10. The method of claim 6, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is administered by intravenous injection.

11. The method of claim 6, wherein the ratio of (i) binding of the compound to a brain area other than the cerebellum to (ii) binding of the compound to the cerebellum, in the subject, is compared to the ratio in normal subjects.

12. A method of detecting amyloid deposits in biopsy or post-mortem human or animal tissue, comprising the steps of: (a) incubating formalin-fixed or fresh-frozen tissue with a solution of a compound as claimed in claim 2 to form a labeled deposit and then (b) detecting the labeled deposits.

13. The method of claim 12 wherein the solution is composed of 25-100% ethanol, with the remainder of the solution being water, wherein the solution is saturated with the compound.

14. The method of claim 12 wherein the solution is composed of an aqueous buffer containing 0-50% ethanol, wherein the solution contains 0.0001 to 100 .mu.M of the compound.

15. The method of claim 12 wherein detecting the labeled deposits is achieved by a microscopic technique selected from the group consisting of bright-field, fluorescence, laser-confocal, and cross-polarization microscopy.

16. A method of quantifying the amount of amyloid in biopsy or post-mortem tissue comprising the steps of: a) incubating a compound according to one of structures 1-34, 36, and 38-45 with a homogenate of biopsy or post-mortem tissue, wherein at least one of the substituents in each structure is replaced by or substituted with a substituent selected from the group consisting of .sup.125I, .sup.3H, and a carbon-containing substituent, wherein at least one carbon is .sup.14C; ##STR00046## ##STR00047## ##STR00048## ##STR00049## ##STR00050## ##STR00051## b) separating the tissue-bound from the tissue-unbound compound, c) quantifying the tissue-bound compound, and d) converting the units of tissue-bound compound to units of micrograms of amyloid per 100 mg of tissue by comparison with a standard.

17. A method of distinguishing an Alzheimer's disease brain from a normal brain comprising the steps of: a) obtaining tissue from (i) the cerebellum and (ii) another area of the same brain other than the cerebellum, from normal subjects and from subjects suspected of having Alzheimer's disease; b) incubating the tissues with a compound as claimed in claim 2 so that amyloid in the tissue binds with the compound, then separating the tissue-bound from the tissue-unbound compound c) quantifying the amount of amyloid bound to the compound; d) calculating the ratio of the amount of amyloid in the area of the brain other than the cerebellum to the amount of aniyloid in the cerebellum; e) comparing the ratio for the amount of amyloid in the tissue from normal subjects with the ratio for the amount of amyloid in tissue from subjects suspected of having Alzheimer's disease; and f) determining the presence of Alzheimer's disease if the ratio from the brain of a subject suspected of having Alzheimer's disease is above 90% of the ratios obtained from the brains of normal subjects.

18. A method of selectively binding a compound to amyloid plaques, but not to neurofibrillary tangles, in brain tissue which contains both, comprising contacting the tissue with a compound as claimed in claim 2 at a concentration which is below 10 nM in in vitro binding and staining assays.

19. A method of selectively binding to amyloid plaques but not to neurofibrillary tangles, in in vivo brain tissue that contains both, comprising administering to a subject an effective amount of a compound as claimed in claim 2 so that blood concentration of the administered compound remains below 10 mM in vivo.

20. A compound according to claim 2, wherein said substituent is .sup.11C.
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