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Claims for Patent: 6,815,458

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Claims for Patent: 6,815,458

Title: Azacyclic compounds
Abstract:Compounds and methods are provided for the treatment of disease conditions in which modification of serotonergic receptor activity has a beneficial effect. In the method, an effective amount of a compound is adminstered to a patient in need of such treatment.
Inventor(s): Andersson; Carl-Magnus A. (Glostrup, DK), Croston; Glenn (San Diego, CA), Hansen; Eva Louise (Glostrup, DK), Uldam; Allan Kjaersgaard (Glostrup, DK)
Assignee: Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Inc (San Diego, CA)
Application Number:09/800,096
Patent Claims: 1. A compound of formula (I) ##STR10## wherein Z is ##STR11## in which R is a hydrogen, a cyclic or straight-chained or branched acyclic organyl group, a lower hydroxyalkyl group, a lower aminoalkyl group, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl up; n is 1; X.sub.1 is methylene, vinylene, or an NH or N(lower alkyl) group; and X.sub.2 is methylene, or, when X.sub.1 is methylene or vinylene, X.sub.2 is methylene or a bond; or when X.sub.1 is methylene, X.sub.2 is O, S, NH, or N(lower alkyl) or a bond; Y.sub.1 is methylene and Y.sub.2 is methylene, vinylene, ethylene, propylene, or bond; or Y.sub.1 is a bond and Y.sub.2 is vinylene; or Y.sub.1 is ethylene and Y.sub.2 is O, S, NH, or N(lower alkyl); Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 independently are unsubstituted or substituted aryl or heteroaryl groups, provided that Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 are not simultaneously unsubstituted phenyl; and W is oxygen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof.

2. A compound according to claim 1, wherein Y.sub.1 is methylene and Y.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, ethylene, or vinylene; or Y.sub.1 is ethylene and Y.sub.2 is O or S; and X.sub.1 is methylene and X.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, O, or S; or X.sub.1 is NH or N(lower alkyl) and X.sub.2 is methylene.

3. A compound according to claim 2, wherein Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 independently are mono- or disubstituted phenyl groups.

4. A compound according to claim 3, wherein R is a hydrogen, a lower alkyl group, a cyclic organyl group, or a substituted or unsubstituted aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group; n is 1; Y.sub.1 is methylene, Y.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, ethylene, or vinylene; X.sub.1 is methylene and X.sub.2 is a bond, or, X.sub.1 is NH or N(lower alkyl) and X.sub.2 is methylene; and Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 are phenyl groups, independently p-substituted with groups selected from lower alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen.

5. A compound according to claim 1, having a formula (II) ##STR12## wherein R.sup.N is hydrogen, lower alkyl, aralkyl, or heteroaralkyl; Ar.sup.L is selected from lower alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen Ar.sup.R is selected from lower alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen; k is 1 or 2 and K is a suitable anion.

6. A compound is selected from the group consisting of: N-(1-(1-methylethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphe nylacetamide; N-(1-(2,2-dimethylethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methox yphenylacetamide; N-(1-pentylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylacetam ide; N-(1-hexylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylacetami de; N-(1-cyclohexylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylac etamide; N-(1-cyclopentylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyla cetamide; N-(1-cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylac etamide; N-(1-cyclopropylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyla cetamide; N-(1-(cyclopentylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methox yphenylacetamide; N-(1-(cyclobutylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxy phenylacetamide; N-(1-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methox yphenylacetamide; N-(1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyph enylacetamide; N-(1-(3-hydroxypropyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyp henylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenylmethylcarbamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-(2-methylpropyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenylme thylcarbamide; N-(1-((2-bromophenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N'-p henylmethylcarbamide; N-(1-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl) methyl)-N'-phenylmethylcarbamide; N-(1-((5-ethylthien-2-yl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)- N'-phenylmethylcarbamide; N-(1-(imidazol-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N'-phe nylmethylcarbamide; N-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N'-phenyl methylcarbamide; N-(1-((4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N'- phenylmethylcarbamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetam ide; N-(1-ethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylacetami de; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-propylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxypheylacetami de; N-(1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenylacetami de; N-(1-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methox yphenylacetamide; N-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4-methoxy phenylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-(2-methytpropyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyph enylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-m ethoxyphenylacetamide; N-(1-((4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4- methoxyphenylacetamide; N-(1-((2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-4- methoxyphenylacetamide; N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((2-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((2-chlorophenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((3,4-di-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-N-(piperdin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide ; N-((4-fluorophenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((2,4-di-chlorophenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide ; N-((3-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((3-bromophenyl)methyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)-4-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-(1-(phenylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)-N-(3-phenyl-2-propen-1-yl)-4-methoxyphen ylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-phenylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-3-phenylpropionamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-(phenylthio)acetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-phenoxyacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-3-methoxyphenylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-4-fluorophenylacetamide; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-2,5-di-methoxyphenylacetami de; N-((4-methylphenyl)methyl)-N-(1-piperidin-4-yl)-4-chlorophenylacetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-ethylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(1-ethylpiperidin-4-yl)acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(1-isopropylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(piperidin-4-yl)acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(1-cyclopentylpiperidin-4-y) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(1-isopropylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(phenyl)-N-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)N-(1-methylpiperidin -4-yl acetamide; 2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(phenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyly]-N-(1-methylpiper idin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-Phenyl-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperdin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperi din-4-yl) acetamide; 2-Phenyl-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-[4-(methoxycarbonyl)benzyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl ) acetamide; 2-(4 methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-(4-chloromethyl-2-thiazolylmethyl) piperidin-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4 methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{(1-[3(1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-o n-1-yl)propyl]piperidin-4-yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(2-4(fluorophenyl)ethyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4 -yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4- yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-fluorophenethyl]-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{1-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]piper idin-4-yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-((2-chloro-5-thienyl)methyl)pip eridin-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-(2-(imidazolidinon-1-yl)ethyl)p iperidin-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{1-[2-(2,4(1H,3H)quinazolinedion-3 -yl)ethyl]piperidin-4-yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{1-[2-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)ethyl]pip eridin-4-yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{1-[2-(3-indolyl)ethyl]piperidin-4 -yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-{1-[3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl]p iperidin-4-yl}acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-(5-benzofurazanylmethyl)piperid in-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-(5-chlorobenzo[b]thien-3-ylmeth yl) piperidin-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-[1-(5-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-ylm ethyl)piperidin-4-yl]acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-isopropylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-ethylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; 2-Phenyl-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide[,2(4-(Chlo rophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide]; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-cyclopentylpiperidin-4-yl)-aceta mide; 2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperidin-4-yl) -acetamide; 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetam ide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yl)-aceta mide(,2(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(methylbenzyl)-N-(tropin-4-yl)-acetamide]; N-(4-Methylbenzyl)-N-(4-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-benzyl-carbamide; N-(4-Methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenyl-carbamide; N-Phenethyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-benzyl-carbamide; 2-Phenyl-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; 2-(4-Trifluoromethylphenyl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)- acetamide; 2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide ; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamid e; 2-(4-Methylphenyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamide; N-Phenethyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenyl-carbamide; N-(3-Phenylpropyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-benzyl-carbamide; N-(3-Phenylpropyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenyl-carbamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-2,2-ethylene-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4- yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-alpha-methylbenzyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; [2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(3-tropen-4-yl) acetamide;] 2-Phenyl-2-ethyl-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; N-Phenethyl-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-amine; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(1-indanyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; N-(4-Methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-(4-methoxybenzyl)-carbamid e; 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)N(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-t-butylpiperidin-4-yl)-acetamid e; N-(4-Methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenethyl-carbamide; N-Phenethyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-N'-phenethyl-carbamide; N-(4-Methylbenzyl)-N-(1-t-butylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl) carbamide; 2-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Butoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-i-Propoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-t-Butoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Butoxyphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-Propoxyphenyl)-N-(4-flourobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; 2-(4-i-Propoxyphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide; and 2-(4-t-Butoxyphenyl)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl) acetamide.

7. A compound of formula (I) ##STR13## wherein Z is ##STR14## in which R is a hydrogen, a cyclic or straight-chained or branched acyclic organyl group, a lower hydroxyalkyl group, a lower aminoalkyl group, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group; and n is 1; X.sub.1 is methylene, vinylene, or an NH or N(lower alkyl) group; and X.sub.2 is methylene, or, when X.sub.1 is methylene or vinylene, X.sub.2 is methylene or a bond; or when X.sub.1 is methylene, X.sub.2 is O, S, NH, or N(lower alkyl) or a bond; Y.sub.1 is methylene and Y.sub.2 is methylene, vinylene, ethylene, propylene, or bond; or Y.sub.1 is a bond and Y.sub.2 is vinylene; or Y.sub.1 is ethylene and Y.sub.2 is O, S, NH, or N(lower alkyl); Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 are different unsubstituted or substituted aryl or heteroaryl groups; and W is oxygen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof.

8. A compound according to claim 7, wherein Y.sub.1 is methylene and Y.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, ethylene, or vinylene; or Y.sub.1 is ethylene and Y.sub.2 is O or S; and X.sub.1 is methylene and X.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, O, or S; or X.sub.1 is NH or N(lower alkyl) and X.sub.2 is a methylene.

9. A compound according to claim 8, wherein Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 independently are mono- or disubstituted phenyl groups.

10. A compound according to claim 9, wherein R is a hydrogen, a lower alkyl group, a cyclic organyl group, or an, optionally substituted, alalkyl or heteroaralkyl group; Y.sub.1 is methylene, Y.sub.2 is a bond, methylene, ethylene, or vinylene; X.sub.1 is methylene and X.sub.2 is a bond, or X.sub.1 is NH or N(lower alkyl) and X.sub.2 is methylene; and Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 are phenyl groups, independently p-substituted with groups selected from alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen.

11. A compound according to claim 7, having a formula (II): ##STR15## wherein RN is hydrogen, lower alkyl, aralkyl, or heteroaralkyl; Ar.sup.L is selected from lower alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen Ar.sup.R is selected from lower alkyl, lower alkoxy and halogen; k is 1 or 2 and N is a suitable anion.

12. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of formula (I): ##STR16## wherein Z is ##STR17## in which R is a hydrogen, a cyclic or straight-chained or branched acyclic organyl group, a lower hydroxyalkyl group, a lower aminoalkyl group, or an aralkyl or heteroaralkyl group; and n is 1; X.sub.1 is methylene, vinylene, or an NH or N(lower alkyl) group; and X.sub.2 is methylene, or, when X.sub.1 is methylene or vinylene, X.sub.2 is methylene or a bond; or when X.sub.1 is methylene, X.sub.2 is O, S, Nil, or N(lower alkyl) or a bond; Y.sub.1 is methylene and Y.sub.2 is methylene, vinylene, ethylene, propylene, or bond; or Y.sub.1 is a bond and Y.sub.2 is vinylene; or Y.sub.1 is ethylene and Y.sub.2 is O, S, NH, or N(lower alkyl); Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 independently are unsubstituted or substituted aryl or heteroaryl groups, provided that Ar.sub.1 and Ar.sub.2 are not simultaneously phenyl; and W is oxygen; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or excipient.

13. A method of inhibiting an activity of a monoamine receptor comprising contacting the monoamine receptor or a system containing the monoamine receptor with an amount of one or more of the compounds of claim 1 that is effective in inhibiting the activity of the monoamine receptor.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein the monoamine receptor is a serotonin receptor.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein the serotonin receptor is the 5-HT2A subclass.

16. The method of claim 14 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the central nervous system.

17. The method of claim 14 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the peripheral nervous system.

18. The method of claim 14 wherein the serotonin receptor is in blood cells or platelets.

19. The method of claim 14 wherein the serotonin receptor is mutated or modified.

20. The method of claim 13 wherein the activity is signaling activity.

21. The method of claim 13 wherein the activity is constitutive.

22. The method of claim 13 wherein the activity is associated with serotonin receptor activation.

23. A method of inhibiting an activation of a monoamine receptor comprising contacting the monoamine receptor or a system containing the monoamine receptor with an amount of a compound of one or more of the compounds of claim 1 that is effective in inhibiting the activation of the monoamine receptor.

24. The method of claim 23 wherein the activation is by an agonistic agent.

25. The method of claim 24 wherein the agonistic agent is exogenous.

26. The method of claim 24 wherein the agonistic agent is endogenous.

27. The method of claim 23 wherein the activation is constitutive.

28. The method of claim 23 wherein the monoamine receptor is a serotonin receptor.

29. The method of claim 28 wherein the serotonin receptor is the 5-HT2A subclass.

30. The method of claim 28 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the central nervous system.

31. The method of claim 28 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the peripheral nervous system.

32. The method of claim 28 wherein the serotonin receptor is in blood cells or platelets.

33. The method of claim 28 wherein the serotonin receptor is mutated or modified.

34. A method of treating a disease condition associated with a monoamine receptor comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of one or more of the compounds of claim 1.

35. The method of claim 34 wherein the disease condition is selected from the group consisting of schizophrenia, psychosis, migraine, hypertension, thrombosis, vasospasm, ischemia, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders and appetite disorders.

36. The method of claim 34 wherein the disease condition is associated with dysfunction of a monoamine receptor.

37. The method of claim 34 wherein the disease condition is associated with activation of a monoamine receptor.

38. The method of claim 34 wherein the disease condition is associated with increased activity of monoamine receptor.

39. The method of claim 34 wherein the monoamine receptor is a serotonin receptor.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein the serotonin receptor is the 5- HT2A subclass.

41. The method of claim 39 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the central nervous system.

42. The method of claim 39 wherein the serotonin receptor is in the peripheral nervous system.

43. The method of claim 39 wherein the serotonin receptor is in blood cells or platelets.

44. The method of claim 39 wherein the serotonin receptor is mutated or modified.

45. A method of treating schizophrenia comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of one or more of the compounds of claim 1.

46. A method of treating migraine comprising administering to a subject in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of one or more of the compounds of claim 1.

47. A method of treating psychosis comprising administering to subject in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of one more of the compounds of claim 1.

48. A method according to claim 47 wherein the psychosis is a drug-induced psychosis.
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