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Claims for Patent: 6,320,074

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Claims for Patent: 6,320,074

Title: Compounds having selective activity for retinoid X receptors, and means for modulation of processes mediated by retinoid X receptors
Abstract:Compounds, compositions, and methods for modulating processes mediated by Retinoid X Receptors using retinoid-like compounds which have activity selective for members of the subclass of Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs), in preference to members of the subclass of Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs). Examples of such compounds are bicyclic benzyl, pyridinyl, thiophene, furanyl, and pyrrole derivatives. The disclosed methods employ compounds for modulating processes selectively mediated by Retinoid X Receptors.
Inventor(s): Boehm; Marcus F. (San Diego, CA), Heyman; Richard A. (Encinitas, CA), Zhi; Lin (San Diego, CA), Koch; Stacie Canan (San Diego, CA)
Assignee: Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (San Diego, CA)
Application Number:09/179,674
Patent Claims: 1. A compound having the formula: ##STR26##

wherein

R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, each independently, represent hydrogen or lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms;

Y represents C, O, S, N, CHOH, CO, SO, SO.sub.2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt;

R.sub.3 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C or N;

R.sub.4 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C, but R.sub.4 does not exist if Y is N, and neither R.sub.3 or R.sub.4 exist if Y is S, O, CHOH, CO, SO, or SO.sub.2 ;

R' and R" represent hydrogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, OH, alkoxy having 1-4 carbon atoms, thiol or thio ether, or amino,

or R' and R" taken together form an oxo (keto), methano, thioketo, HO--N.dbd., NC--N.dbd., (R.sub.7 R.sub.8)N--N.dbd., R.sub.17 O--N.dbd., R.sub.17 N.dbd., epoxy, cyclopropyl, or cycloalkyl group and wherein the epoxy, cyclopropyl, and cycloalkyl groups can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R'" and R"" represent hydrogen, halogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, alkyl amino,

or R'" and R"" taken together form a cycloalkyl group having 3-10 carbons, and wherein the cycloalkyl group can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R.sub.5 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8,

R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, R.sub.13 each independently represent hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3, and exist only if the Z, Z', Z", Z'", or Z"", from which it originates is C, or each independently represent hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons if the Z, Z', Z", Z'", or Z"" from which it originates is N, and where one of R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12 or R.sub.13 is X;

R.sub.7 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.8 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.9 represents a-lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, phenyl, aromatic alkyl, or q-carboxyphenyl q-hydroxyphenyl, q-bromophenyl, q-chlorophenyl, q-florophenyl, or q-iodophenyl, where q=2-4;

R.sub.14 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, oxo, hydroxy, acyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, thiol, or thioketone;

R.sub.17 represents hydrogen, lower alkyl having 1-8 carbons, alkenyl (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes) R.sub.9, alkyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), alkenyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes), alkyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), and alkenyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes);

X is COOH, tetrazole, PO.sub.3 H, SO.sub.3 H, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COSH, COOR.sub.9, COSR.sub.9, CONHR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and where X can originate from any C or N on the ring;

one of Z, Z', Z", Z'" and Z"", each independently, represent O, N, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and the rest are C, however, all Z's may represent C in the second structure but one of Z,Z',Z",Z'" and Z"" is not O or S if attached by a double bond to another such Z or if attached to another such Z which is O or S, and is not N if attached by a single bond to another such Z which is N and is not O or S in any of the six-membered rings containing them;

n=0-3; and

the dashed lines in the fourth structure shown depicts optional double bonds.

2. A compound of claim 1 wherein said compound selectively activates Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

3. A compound selected from the group consisting of

4-[3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid,

4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]benzoic acid,

4-[1(3,5,5,8, 8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)cyclopropyl]benzoic acid,

4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]benzenete trazole,

2-[1-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]pyridine-5- carboxylic acid,

2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethyl]pyridine-5- carboxylic acid,

ethyl-2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]pyr idine-5-carboxylate,

5-[1-3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]pyridine-2 -carboxylic acid,

2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)cyclopropyl]pyrid ine-5-carboxylic acid,

methyl 2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)cyclopropyl]pyri dine-5-carboxylate, and

4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]-N-(4-hyd roxyphenyl)benzamide.

4. 2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethenyl]pyridine -5-carboxylic acid.

5. 2-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)cyclopropyl]pyri dine-5-carboxylic acid.

6. A compound selected from the group consisting of

2-[1-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)cyclopropyl]pyridin e-5-carboxylic acid,

ethyl-4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benz oate-oxime,

4-[(3-bromo-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-napthyl)carbonyl]benzo ic acid oxime,

2-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]pyridine-5 -carboxylic acid oxime,

ethyl-4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benz oate methyloxime, and

2-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]pyridine-5 -carboxylic acid methyloxime.

7. 4-[(3,5,5,8,8,-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid oxime.

8. 4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid methyloxime.

9. A compound selected from the group consisting of

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid butyloxime,

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid propyloxime,

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-terrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid cyanoimine,

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid allyloxime,

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid 4-(3-methyl but-2-enoic acid) oxime, and

4-[(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid 1-amino ethyl oxime.

10. A pharmaceutical composition comprising in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle suitable for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration, one or more ligands which modulate a process selectively mediated by Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

11. A pharmaceutical composition comprising in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle suitable for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration, one or more compounds of claim 1.

12. A method for modulating a process selectively mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a ligand which selectively activates one or more said Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein said ligand is at least five-fold more potent an activator of Retinoid X Receptors than of Retinoic Acid Receptors.

14. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of at least one ligand which modulates a process selectively mediated by Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

15. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of at least one compound of the formula: ##STR27##

wherein

R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, each independently, represent hydrogen or lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms;

Y represents C, O, S, N, CHOH, CO, SO, SO.sub.2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt;

R.sub.3 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C or N;

R.sub.4 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C, but R.sub.4 does not exist if Y is N, and neither R.sub.3 or R.sub.4 exist if Y is S, O, CHOH, CO, SO, or SO.sub.2 ;

R' and R" represent hydrogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, OH, alkoxy having 1-4 carbon atoms, thiol or thio ether, or amino,

or R' and R"0 taken together form an oxo (keto), methano, thioketo, HO--N.dbd., NC--N.dbd., (R.sub.7 R.sub.8)N--N.dbd., R.sub.17 O--N.dbd., R.sub.17 N.dbd., epoxy, cyclopropyl, or cycloalkyl group and wherein the epoxy, cyclopropyl, and cycloalkyl groups can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R'" and R"" represent hydrogen, halogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, alkyl amino,

or R'" and R"" taken together form a cycloalkyl group having 3-10 carbons, and wherein the cycloalkyl group can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R.sub.5 represents hydrogen a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3 ;

R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, R.sub.13 each independently represent hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3, and exist only if the Z, Z', Z", Z'", or Z"", from which it originates is C, or each independently represent hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons if the Z, Z', Z", Z'", or Z"" from which it originates is N, and where one of R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12 or R.sub.13 is X;

R.sub.7 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.8 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.9 represents a-lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, phenyl, aromatic alkyl or q-carboxyphenyl, q-hydroxyphenyl, q-bromophenyl, q-chlorophenyl, q-florophenyl, or q-iodophenyl, where q=2-4;

R.sub.14 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, oxo, hydroxy, acyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, thiol, or thioketone;

R.sub.17 represents hydrogen, lower alkyl having 1-8 carbons, alkenyl (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes) R.sub.9, alkyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), alkenyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes), alkyl amines (including halogen acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), and alkenyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes);

X is COOH, tetrazole, PO.sub.3 H, SO.sub.3 H, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COSH COOR.sub.9, COSR.sub.9, CONHR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and where X can originate from any C or N on the ring;

one of Z,Z',Z",Z'" and Z"", each independently, represent O, N, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and the rest are C, however, all Z's may represent C in the second structure but one of Z,Z',Z", Z'" and Z"" is not O or S if attached by a double bond to another such Z or if attached to another such Z which is O or S, and is not N if attached by a single bond to another such Z which is N and is not O or S in any of the six-membered rings containing them;

n=0-3: and

the dashed lines in fourth structure shown depicts optional double bonds.

16. A method according to claim 15 wherein said Retinoid X Receptor is Retinoid X Receptor-alpha, Retinoid X Receptor-beta, or Retinoid X Receptor-gamma.

17. A method according to claim 15 wherein said process is the in vivo modulation of lipid metabolism, in vivo modulation of skin-related processes, in vivo modulation of autoimmune diseases, in vivo modulation of fatty acid metabolism, in vivo modulation of malignant cell development, in vivo modulation of premalignant lesions, or in vivo modulation of programmed cell death.

18. The method according to claim 15 wherein said process is the in vivo enhancement of programmed cell death.

19. The method according to claim 15 wherein said process is the in vivo inhibition of programmed cell death.

20. A method according to claim 15 wherein said process is in vivo or in vitro cellular growth and differentiation, or in vivo limb morphogenesis.

21. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of at least one compound as set forth in claim 3.

22. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising administering to mammalian subject an amount effective to modulate said process mediated by said one or more Retinoid X Receptors, of one or more ligands which modulate a process selectively mediated by Retinoid x Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

23. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising administering to a mammalian subject an amount, effective to modulate said process mediated by said one or more Retinoid X Receptors, of one or more compounds of claim 1.

24. A method for treating a mammalian subject requiring Retinoid X Receptor therapy comprising administering to such subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of one or more ligands which modulates a process selectively mediated by Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Receptors.

25. A method for treating a mammalian subject requiring Retinoid X Receptor therapy comprising administering to such subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of one or more compounds as set forth in claim 1.

26. A method for increasing plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein in a mammalian subject comprising administering to such subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of one or more compounds as set forth in claim 1.

27. A method for determining the presence of one or more Retinoid X Receptors comprising combining a compound of claim 1 with a sample containing one or more unknown receptors and determining whether said compound binds to any receptor in said sample.

28. A method of purifying Retinoid X Receptors comprising combining a compound as set forth in claim 1 with a sample containing one or more said Retinoid X Receptors, allowing said compound to bind with Retinoid X Receptors, and separating out the bound combination of said compound and Retinoid X Receptor.

29. A compound of the formula ##STR28##

wherein

R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, independently, represent hydrogen or lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms;

Y represents C, O, S, N, CHOH, CO, SO, SO.sub.2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt;

R.sub.3 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C or N;

R.sub.4 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C, but R.sub.4 does not exist if Y is N, and neither R.sub.3 or R.sub.4 exist if Y is S, O, CHOH, CO, SO, or SO.sub.2 ;

R' and R" represent hydrogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, OH, alkoxy having 1-4 carbon atoms, thiol or thio ether, or amino,

or R' and R" taken together form an oxo (keto), methano, thioketo, HO--N.dbd., NC--N.dbd., (R.sub.7 R.sub.8)N--N.dbd., R.sub.17 O--N.dbd., R.sub.17 N.dbd., epoxy, cyclopropyl, or cycloalkyl group and wherein the epoxy, cyclopropyl, and cycloalkyl groups can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R'" and R"" represent hydrogen, halogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, alkyl, amino,

or R'" and R"" taken together form a cycloalkyl group having 3-10 carbons, and wherein the cycloalkyl group can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R.sub.5 represents halogen, nitro, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3 ;

R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, R.sub.13 each independently represent hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3, or X;

R.sub.7 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.8 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.9 represents a-lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, phenyl, aromatic alkyl, or q-carboxyphenyl, q-hydroxyphenyl, q-bromophenyl, q-chlorophenyl, q-florophenyl, or q-iodophenyl, where q=2-4;

R.sub.14 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, oxo, hydroxy, acyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, thiol, or thioketone;

R.sub.17 represents hydrogen, lower alkyl having 1-8 carbons, alkenyl (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes) R.sub.9, alkyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), alkenyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes), alkyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), and alkenyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes);

X is COOH, tetrazole, PO.sub.3 H, SO.sub.3 H, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COSH, COOR.sub.9, COSR.sub.9, CONHR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and where X can originate from any C on the ring, provided however, that X cannot be COOH, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COOR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt when X originates from a C in the 2 or 6 position on the ring; and

n=0-3.

30. A compound of claim 29 wherein said compound selectively activates Retinoid X Receptors in preference to Retinoic Acid Receptors.

31. A pharmaceutical composition comprising administering to a patient one or more compounds of claim 29 in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle suitable for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration.

32. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of at least one compound of the formula: ##STR29##

wherein

R.sub.1 and R.sub.2, each independently, represent hydrogen or lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms;

Y represents C, O, S, N, CHOH, CO, SO, SO.sub.2 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt;

R.sub.3 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C or N;

R.sub.4 represents hydrogen or lower alkyl having 1-4 carbon atoms where Y is C, but R.sub.4 does not exist if Y is N, and neither R.sub.3 or R.sub.4 exist if Y is S, O, CHOH, CO, SO, or SO.sub.2 ;

R' and R" represent hydrogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, OH, alkoxy having 1-4 carbon atoms, thiol or thio ether, or amino,

or R' and R" taken together form an oxo (keto), methano, thioketo, HO--N.dbd., NC--N.dbd., (R.sub.7 R.sub.8)N--N.dbd., R.sub.17 O--N.dbd., R.sub.17 N.dbd., epoxy, cyclopropyl, or cycloalkyl group and wherein the epoxy, cyclopropyl, and cycloalkyl groups can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R'" and R"" represent hydrogen, halogen, lower alkyl or acyl having 1-4 carbon atoms, alkyl, amino,

or R'" and R"" taken together form a cycloalkyl group having 3-10 carbons, and wherein the cycloalkyl group can be substituted with lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons or halogen;

R.sub.5 represents halogen, nitro, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.8, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3 ;

R.sub.6, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, R.sub.13 each independently represent hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, nitro, OR.sub.7, SR.sub.7, NR.sub.7 R.sub.9, or (CF.sub.2).sub.n CF.sub.3, or X;

R.sub.7 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.8 represents hydrogen or a lower alkyl having 1-6 carbons;

R.sub.9 represents a-lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, phenyl, aromatic alkyl, or q-carboxyphenyl, q-hydroxyphenyl, q-bromophenyl, q-chlorophenyl, q-florophenyl, or q-iodophenyl, where q=2-4;

R.sub.14 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl having 1-4 carbons, oxo, hydroxy, acyl having 1-4 carbons, halogen, thiol, or thioketone;

R.sub.17 represents hydrogen, lower alkyl having 1-8 carbons, alkenyl (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes) R.sub.9, alkyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), alkenyl carboxylic acid (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes), alkyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkyls), and alkenyl amines (including halogen, acyl, OR.sub.7 and SR.sub.7 substituted alkenes);

X is COOH, tetrazole, PO.sub.3 H, SO.sub.3 H, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COSH, COOR.sub.9, COSR.sub.9, CONHR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, and where X can originate from any C on the ring, provided however, that X cannot be COOH, CHO, CH.sub.2 OH, CONH.sub.2, COOR.sub.9, or COOW where W is a pharmaceutically acceptable salt when X originates from a C in the 2 or 6 position on the ring; and

n=0-3.

33. A method according to claim 32 wherein said process is the in vivo modulation of lipid metabolism, in vivo modulation of skin-related processes, in vivo modulation of autoimmune diseases, in vivo modulation of fatty acid metabolism, in vivo modulation of malignant cell development, in vivo modulation of premalignant lesions, or in vivo modulation of programmed cell death.

34. The method according to claim 32 wherein said process is the in vivo enhancement of programmed cell death.

35. The method according to claim 32 wherein said process is the in vivo inhibition of programmed cell death.

36. A method according to claim 32 wherein said process is in vivo or in vitro cellular growth and differentiation, or in vivo limb morphogenesis.

37. A method for modulating a process mediated by one or more Retinoid X Receptors, said method comprising administering to a mammalian subject an amount, effective to modulate said process mediated by said one or more Retinoid X Receptors, of one or more compounds of claim 32.

38. A method for treating a mammalian subject requiring Retinoid X Receptor therapy comprising administering to such subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of one or more compounds as set forth in claim 29.

39. A method for increasing plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein in a mammalian subject comprising administering to such subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of one or more compounds as set forth in claim 29.

40. A method for determining the presence of one or more Retinoid X Receptors comprising combining a compound of claim 29 with a sample containing one or more unknown receptors and determining whether said compound binds to any receptor in said sample.

41. A method of purifying Retinoid-X Receptors comprising combining a compound as set forth in claim 29 with a sample containing one or more said Retinoid X Receptors, allowing said compound to bind with Retinoid X Receptors, and separating out the bound combination of said compound and Retinoid X Receptor.
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