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Claims for Patent: 6,165,497

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Claims for Patent: 6,165,497

Title: Subsaturated nicotine transdermal therapeutic system
Abstract:Rate controlled transdermal nicotine delivery systems are disclosed which utilize an in-line adhesive to maintain the systems on the skin. The initial equilibrated concentration of nicotine in the nicotine reservoir and the adhesive is below saturation, preferably at a thermodynamic activity no greater than 0.50, and the reservoir comprises the nicotine dissolved in a polymer with respect to which the rate controlling element of the device is substantially impermeable. In preferred embodiments the initial loading of nicotine in the reservoir is sufficient to prevent the activity of the nicotine in the reservoir from decreasing by more than about 75% and preferably no more than about 25% during the predetermined period of administration; and the thicknesses of the adhesive, rate controlling membrane and reservoir layers are selected so that at least 50% and, preferably at least 75% initial equilibrated nicotine loading is in the reservoir layer.
Inventor(s): Osborne; James L. (Mountain View, CA), Nelson; Melinda (Sunnyvale, CA), Enscore; David J. (Saratoga, CA), Yum; Su Il (Los Altos, CA), Gale; Robert M. (Los Altos, CA)
Assignee: ALZA Corporation (Mountain View, CA)
Application Number:07/662,857
Patent Claims: 1. A medical device for the transdermal administration of nicotine, said device being adapted to deliver nicotine during a predetermined nicotine administration period of at least about eight hours, said device comprising, in combination:

(a) nicotine reservoir means comprising said nicotine dissolved in a solvent at a concentration less than saturation and containing sufficient nicotine to administer nicotine at an administration rate in the range of 250-4000 .mu.g/hr during a substantial portion of said administration period;

(b) nicotine release rate controlling membrane means disposed in the path of nicotine migration from said reservoir to the skin; said means maintaining the administration rate of nicotine from said device substantially constant and within the range of 250-4000 .mu.g/hr for a substantial portion of said administration period; and

(c) adhesive means disposed in the path of nicotine migration from said release rate controlling means to the skin.

2. The device of claim 1 wherein the initial equilibrated thermodynamic activity of nicotine in said reservoir is no greater than 0.50.

3. The device of claim 2 wherein said adhesive has a high nicotine solubility.

4. The device of claim 2 wherein at least 50% of the initial loading of the nicotine in the device is in the nicotine reservoir.

5. The device of claim 1 wherein the initial equilibrated thermodynamic activity of nicotine in said reservoir and adhesive layers is in the range of 0.20-0.40.

6. The device of claim 1 wherein the steady state flux of nicotine is in the range of 23 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 hr.

7. The device of claim 1 wherein the steady state flux is in the range of 23 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 hr.

8. A transdermal patch comprising:

(a) a nicotine reservoir layer having a skin-facing side and a skin-distal side, said reservoir layer containing a sufficient quantity of nicotine to maintain a useful transdermal flux of nicotine from said patch for a total time period of at least 16 hours;

(b) an occlusive backing layer in contact with and covering said reservoir layer on said skin-distal side; and

(c) rate controlling means for controlling diffusion of nicotine from said reservoir such that the average transdermal flux over said time period is below 200 .mu.q/cm.sup.2 /hr.

9. A transdermal patch comprising:

(a) a nicotine reservoir layer having a skin-facing side and a skin-distal side, said reservoir layer containing a sufficient quantity of nicotine to maintain a useful flux of nicotine from said patch for a period of 8 hours or more;

(b) an occlusive backing layer in contact with and covering said reservoir layer on said skin-distal side; and

(c) nicotine permeable rate controlling membrane means for controlling diffusion or nicotine from said skin-facing side at a flux between 23 and 800 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 /hr for a period of 8 hours or more.

10. A method for administering nicotine to an individual in need of such administration, comprising applying to the skin of said individual a transdermal patch, said patch comprising:

(a) a nicotine reservoir layer having a skin-facing side and skin-distal side, said reservoir layer containing a sufficient quantity of nicotine to maintain a useful transdermal flux of nicotine from said patch for a total time period of at least 16 hours;

(b) an occlusive backing layer in contact with and covering said reservoir layer on said skin-distal side; and

(c) rate controlling means for controlling diffusion of nicotine from said reservoir such that the average transdermal flux over said time period is below 200 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 /hr.

11. A method of administering nicotine to an individual in need of such administration comprising applying to the skin of said individual a transdermal patch, said patch comprising:

(a) a nicotine reservoir layer having a skin-facing side and a skin-distal side, said depot layer containing a sufficient quantity of nicotine to maintain a useful flux of nicotine from said patch for a period of 8 hours or more;

(b) an occlusive backing layer in contact with an covering said reservoir layer on said skin-distal side; and

(c) nicotine permeable rate controlling membrane means for controlling diffusion of nicotine from said skin-facing side at a flux between 23 and 800 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 /hr for a period of 8 hours or more.

12. The transdermal patch of claim 8 wherein the transdermal flux during the steady state portion of the total time period is within the range of 30-120 mg/cm.sup.2 /hr.

13. The method of claim 10 wherein the transdermal flux during the steady state portion of the total time period is within the range of 30-120 mg/cm.sup.2 /hr.
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