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Claims for Patent: 5,962,731

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Claims for Patent: 5,962,731

Title: Compounds having selective activity for retinoid X receptors, and means for modulation of processes mediated by retinoid X receptors
Abstract:Compounds, compositions, and methods for modulating processes mediated by Retinoid X Receptors using retinoid-like compounds which have activity selective for members of the subclass of Retinoid X Receptors (RXRs), in preference to members of the subclass of Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs). Examples of such compounds are bicyclic benzyl, pyridinyl, thiophene, furanyl, and pyrrole derivatives. The disclosed methods employ compounds for modulating processes selectively mediated by Retinoid X Receptors.
Inventor(s): Boehm; Marcus F. (San Diego, CA), Heyman; Richard A. (Encinitas, CA)
Assignee: Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (San Diego, CA)
Application Number:08/472,784
Patent Claims: 1. A ligand which selectively activates a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

2. A ligand which modulates a process selectively mediated by a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

3. The ligand of claim 1 wherein said ligand is at least five-fold more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

4. A pharmaceutical composition comprising in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle suitable for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration, one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of 4-[1-(2-methyl-4-t-butylphenyl)ethenyl] benzoic acid,

4-[1-(2-methyl-4-t-butylphenyl)cyclopropyl] benzoic acid,

4-[(2-methyl-4-t-butylphenyl)carbonyl] benzoic acid,

4-[(2-methyl-4-t-butylphenyl)carbonyl] benzoic acid oxime, and

4-[1-(2-methyl-4-t-butylphenyl)carbonyl] benzoic acid methyloxime.

5. A compound which is an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor in a co-transfection assay, which compound is more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma. in the co-transfection assay.

6. A compound according to claim 5, wherein said compound is at least three times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

7. A compound according to claim 5, wherein said compound is at least five times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

8. A compound which modulates a process mediated by a Retinoid X Receptor, wherein said compound selectively activates one or more Retinoid X Receptors in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

9. A compound according to claim 8, wherein said compound is at least three times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

10. A compound according to claim 8, wherein said compound is at least five times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

11. The method of modulating a process mediated by a Retinoid X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor heterodimer comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which selectively activates said Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., wherein said process is the in vivo modulation of lipid metabolism, skin-related processes, fatty acid metabolism, malignant cell development, premalignant lesions, autoimmune disease, programmed cell death, lipid homeostasis, or endocrinological processes.

12. A method according to claim 11, wherein said compound is at least five times more potent an activator of Retinoid X Receptors than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

13. A method according to claim 11, wherein said compound is at least three times more potent an activator of Retinoid X Receptors than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

14. The method of modulating a process mediated by a Retinoid X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor heterodimer comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which selectively activates said Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., wherein said compound is useful to treat proliferative disorders, differentiation disorders, cancer, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, plasma HDL levels, apolipoprotein A1 metabolism, or hyperlipidemia.

15. A method according to claim 13, further comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which is a Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor activator.

16. A method of treating a mammalian subject requiring Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor therapy comprising administering to said subject a pharmaceutically effective amount of a compound which selectively activates a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., wherein said compound exerts its therapeutic effects through a Retinoid X Receptor:Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor heterodimer.

17. A compound which selectively activates a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., and wherein said compound further exhibits activity as a Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor activator.

18. A pharmaceutical composition comprising in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle suitable for enteral, parenteral, or topical administration, one or more compounds which selectively activate a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., and wherein said compound exerts its therapeutic effects through a Retinoid X Receptor:Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor heterodimer.

19. A method of modulating a process mediated by a heterodimer of Retinoid X Receptor and another intracellular receptor capable of forming a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor, comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which selectively activates a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., wherein said process is the in vivo modulation of lipid metabolism, lipid homeostasis, hyperlipidemia, skin-related processes, autoimmune diseases, fatty acid metabolism, malignant cell development, premalignant lesions, programmed cell death, endocrinological processes, or AP-1 metabolism.

20. A method of modulating a process mediated by a heterodimer of Retinoid X Receptor and another intracellular receptor capable of forming a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor, comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which selectively activates a Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma., wherein said compound is useful to treat dermatological conditions, keratinization disorders, proliferative disorders, differentiation disorders, comedolytic activity, cancer, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular disorders, apolipoprotein A1 metabolism, or plasma HDL levels.

21. A method of modulating a process mediated by a heterodimer of Retinoid X Receptor and another intracellular receptor capable of forming a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor, comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a compound which selectively activates all of Retinoid X Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma. in preference to a Retinoic Acid Receptor, wherein said compound is useful to treat acne, psoriasis, aging, wrinkling, acute promyelocytic leukemia, mammary cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, cancers of the aerodigestive pathway, skin cancer, bladder cancer, sarcomas, or leukoplakias.

22. A method of modulating a process mediated by a heterodimer of Retinoid X Receptor and another intracellular receptor capable of forming a heterodimer with Retinoid X Receptors comprising causing said process to be conducted in the presence of a first compound which selectively activates said Retinoid X Receptor in preference to all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma. and a second compound which is an activator for said other intracellular receptor, wherein one or both of the said first and second compounds are administered at a dosage which is insufficient to modulate said process at a comparable biological level when said first or second compound is administered as a single agent, wherein said process is the in vivo modulation of lipid metabolism, lipid homeostasis, hyperlipidemia, skin-related processes, autoimmune diseases, fatty acid metabolism, malignant cell development, premalignant lesions, programmed cell death, endocrinological processes, or AP-1 metabolism, and wherein said compound is useful to treat dermatological conditions, keratinization disorders, proliferative disorders, differentiation disorders, comedolytic activity, cancer, inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular disorders, apolipoprotein A1 metabolism, or plasma HDL levels, and wherein said compound is useful to treat acne, psoriasis, aging, wrinkling, acute promyelocytic leukemia, mammary cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, cancers of the aerodigestive pathway, skin cancer, bladder cancer, sarcomas, or leukoplakias.

23. A method according to claim 19, wherein said compound is at least three times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

24. A method according to claim 19, wherein said compound is at least five times more potent an activator of a Retinoid X Receptor than all of Retinoic Acid Receptor isoforms .alpha., .beta., and .gamma..

25. A method according to claim 19, wherein said process is conducted in the further presence of a compound which activates said other intracellular receptor of said heterodimer.

26. A method according to claim 19, wherein said other intracellular receptor is a Retinoic Acid Receptor, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor, Vitamin D receptor, thyroid hormone receptor, HNF4 receptor, or a member of the COUP family of receptors.
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