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Claims for Patent: 5,874,104

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Claims for Patent: 5,874,104

Title: Treatment of systemic fungal infections with phospholipid particles encapsulating polyene antibiotics
Abstract:Formulations consisting of phospholipid small unilamellar particles encapsulating polyene antifungal antibiotics and methods for using such compositions to treat systemic fungal infections are described. In a preferred embodiment, the particles are in the form of vesicles which comprise a polyene antifungal antibiotic, preferably amphotericin B and/or nystatin, egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, preferably in the molar ratio of about 0.2 (AMB):2(PL):1(CHOL). These vesicles may also have an amine modified surface. The vesicles are suspended in a low isonic strength saccharide/tris solution at a pH of from about 6.0 to about 8.0 and may be administered to deliver the antifungal antibiotic to treat systemic fungal infections.
Inventor(s): Adler-Moore; Jill (Altadena, CA), Gamble; Ronald C. (Altadena, CA), Proffitt; Richard T. (Arcadia, CA)
Assignee: NeXstar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Boulder, CO)
Application Number:08/467,864
Patent Claims: 1. An injectable composition comprising a polyene antifungal antibiotic encapsulated in small unilamellar vesicles of less than 2000 .ANG. in an amount of about 4 to about 12 mole percent, said vesicles comprising at least one phospholipid and cholesterol, hydrated in a low ionic strength aqueous phase composed of a mono or disaccharide, said composition being stable upon storage and having an acute intravenous toxicity (LD.sub.50) in mice greater than approximately 21.2 mg of said polyene antibiotic per kg of animal weight.

2. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the polyene antifungal antibiotic is selected from the group consisting of amphotericin B and nystatin.

3. The composition according to claim 1 wherein said vesicles have an extended amine on their surface.

4. The composition according to claim 3 wherein the extended amine is an aminosaccharide.

5. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the polyene antifungal antibiotic, at least one phospholipid and cholesterol are in a mole percentage ratio ranging from 5-15 mole percent polyene antifungal antibiotic, 40-90 mole percent phospholipid, and 10-40 mole percent cholesterol.

6. The composition according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the ionic strength of the aqueous phase is less than 20 mM.

7. The composition according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the pH of the aqueous phase is in the range of from about pH 6.0 to about 8.0.

8. The composition according to claim 2 wherein the aqueous phase is buffered with Tris.

9. The composition according to claim 2 or 8 wherein the saccharide is selected from the group consisting of sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose, and galactose.

10. The composition according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the concentration of polyene antifungal antibiotic is at least 0.5 mg./ml.

11. A method for treating systemic fungal infections, in a human or animal, comprising intravenously administering the composition of claim 1 or 2.

12. An injectable composition comprising small unilamellar vesicles of less than 2000 .ANG. which contain a polyene antifungal antibiotic in an amount of about 4 to about 12 mole percent prepared by a process comprising the steps of:

a) dissolving at least one phospholipid and cholesterol in an aliphatic alcohol having from four to eight carbon atoms;

b) dissolving a polyene antifungal antibiotic in a solvent selected from the group consisting of dimethylsulfoxide or dimethylformamide;

c) mixing the solutions of steps (a) and (b);

d) evaporating the mixed solvents to produce a lipid cholesterol antibiotic mixture;

e) hydrating the mixture with saccharide solution of low ionic strength; and

f) forming small unilamellar vesicles containing the polyene antifungal antibiotic from the hydrated mixture.

13. The injectable composition of claim 12 in which the aliphatic alcohol is selected from the group consisting of heptanol and octanol.

14. The injectable composition of claim 12 in which the polyene antifungal antibiotic is selected from the group consisting of amphotericin B and nystatin.

15. A method for the treatment of a fungal infection comprising the administration to a human or animal of an amount of the composition of claim 5 which is sufficient for such treatment.

16. The composition according to claim 4 wherein said aminosaccharide is a 6-aminomannose derivative of cholesterol in an amount of from about 0 to about 20 mole percent.

17. The composition of claim 1, 2 or 12 in which at least 90% of said polyene antibiotic is encapsulated in said vesicles.

18. The composition of claim 1 wherein said phospholipid is selected from the group consisting of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol.

19. The composition of claim 1 wherein said at least one phospholipid is phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol.

20. The composition of claim 19 wherein said phosphatidylglycerol is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, dilaurylphosphatidylglycerol, and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol.

21. The composition of claim 19 wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, egg phosphatidylcholine and soy phosphatidylcholine.

22. The composition of claim 19 wherein the components are Amphotericin B, distearoylphosphatidylglycerol, soy phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol in a molar ratio of about 0.4:0.8:2.0:1.0.

23. The composition of claim 22 wherein said composition is hydrated in a buffered 9% sucrose aqueous phase.

24. The composition of claim 1 or 22 wherein said composition is lyophilized.

25. A method for the treatment of a fungal infection in a human or animal comprising the administration of an amount of the composition of claim 1, 2 or 22.

26. A method for the treatment of a fungal infection in a human or animal comprising the administration of an amount of the composition of claim 12.
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