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|Title:||Platelet aggregation inhibitors|
|Abstract:||This invention relates to a group of peptides which are, or are related to, platelet aggregation inhibitors isolated and purified from various snake venoms. The instant platelet aggregation inhibitors inhibit (a) binding of Fg or vWF to GPIIb-IIIa more than (b) binding of vitronectin to vitronectin receptor or fibronectin to fibronectin receptor. The peptides are useful as therapeutic agents for the treatment of, and prevention of, platelet-associated ischemic disorders.|
|Inventor(s):||Scarborough; Robert M. (Belmont, CA), Wolf; David Lawrence (Palo Alto, CA), Charo; Israel F. (Lafayette, CA)|
|Assignee:||COR Therapeutics, Inc. (South San Francisco, CA)|
1. A platelet aggregation inhibitor that inhibits (a) binding of Fg or vWP to GP IIb-IIIa more than (b) binding of vitronectin to vitronectin receptor or fibronectin to fibronectin
receptor, which platelet aggregation inhibitor has the formula ##STR7## (1) where K* is a lysyl residue of the formula
wherein each R.sup.1 is independently hydrogen, alky(1-6C) or one R.sup.1 is R.sup.2 --C.dbd.N.sup.3, in which:
R.sup.2 is hydrogen, alkyl(1-6C), a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl or benzyl residue, or NR.sup.4.sub.2 in which each R.sup.4 is independently hydrogen or alkyl(1-6C), and
R.sup.3 is hydrogen, allyl(1-6C), phenyl or benzyl, or
R.sup.2 --C.dbd.NR.sup.3 is a radical selected from the group consisting of ##STR8## wherein m is an integer of 2-3, and each R.sup.5 is independently H or alkyl(1-6C) and one or two --CH.sub.2 -- may be replaced by O or S provided said O or S is not adjacent to another heteroatom;
(2) where AA.sub.1 and AA.sub.4 are each independently selected from the group consisting of Gly, Ala, and Ser; n1 is an integer of 0-3; and n4 is an integer of 0-3;
(3) where AA.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine, and valine and n2 is an integer of 0-3;
(4) where AA.sub.3 is a proline residue or a modified proline residue of the formula ##STR9## wherein one or two of the methylenes of said proline or modified proline residue is optionally replaced by --NR--, --S--, or --O-- wherein R is hydrogen or allyl (1-6C) and n3 is an integer of 0-1;
(5) where each of X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 is independently a residue selected from the group consisting of cysteine, mercaptopropionyl, mercaptovaleryl, and penicillaine, and ##STR10## represents a bond between X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 ; and (6) where each of Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 is independently a non-interfering substituent or is absent; and
(7) where one or more peptide linkages may optionally be replaced by a linkage selected from the group consisting of --CH.sub.2 NH--, --CH.sub.2 S--, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 --, --CH.dbd.CH-- (cis or trans), --COCH.sub.2 --, --CH(OH)CH.sub.2 -- and --CH.sub.2 SO--; and
(8) where all chiral amino acid residues in said formula are of the L configuration;
(9) with the proviso that if n3 is 0; either:
1) the sum of n2 and n4 must be at least 2; or
2) K* cannot be Har or Lys; or
3) X.sub.2 cannot be cysteine, penicillamine, or 2-amino-3,3-cyclopentanemethylene-3-mercaptopropionic acid; or
4) one or more peptide linkages is replaced by said alternate linkage,
or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof.
2. The composition of claim 1 wherein Y.sub.2 is --NH.sub.2, --alanine--NH.sub.2, or is absent.
3. The composition of claim 1 wherein Y.sub.1 is hydrogen, acetyl, glycine, or is absent.
4. The composition of claim 1 wherein X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 are selected from the group consisting of cystein, mercrcaptopropionyl, and penicillamine.
5. The composition of claim 1 wherein AA.sub.1 is glycine and n.sub.1 is 0 or 1.
6. The composition of claim 1 wherein AA.sub.2 is tryptophan or phenylalanine.
7. The composition of claim 6 wherein AA.sub.2 is tryptophan.
8. The composition of claim 1 wherein K* is lysine, homoarginine, acetimidyl lysine, or phenylimidyl-lysine.
9. The composition of claim 1, wherein:
Y.sub.3 is --NH.sub.2, --alanyl--NH.sub.2, or is absent;
Y.sub.1 is hydrogen, acetyl, glycyl, or is absent;
X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 are selected from the group consisting of peptide-forming residues of cysteine, mercaptopropionyl, and penicillamine;
AA.sub.1 is glycine and n.sub.1 is 0 or 1;
AA.sub.2 is tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine, or valine;
AA.sub.3 is proline, pipecolic acid, or thiazolidine and n3 is 1; and
K* is lysine, homoarginine, acetimidyl-lysine, or phenylimidyl-lysine.
10. The composition of claim 9, wherein n1 is 0, n2 is 1, and n4 is 0.
11. The composition of claim 10, wherein:
Y.sub.2 is NH.sub.2 ;
Y.sub.1 is hydrogen, acetyl, glycine, or is absent;
n1 is 0;
K* is lysine, homoarginine, acetimidyl-lysine, or phenylimidyl-lysine;
X.sub.1 and X.sub.2 are selected from the group consisting of cysteine, mercaptopropionyl, penicillamine;
AA.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of typtophan, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine, and valine and n2 is 1;
AA.sub.3 is proline, pipecolic acid, or thiazolidine and n3 is 1; and
n4 is 0.
12. The composition of claim 11, wherein (Gly or Sar) is glycine.
13. The composition of claim 4 in which said platelet aggregation inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of
Mpr-Lys-Gly-Asp-Trp-Thz-Cys NH.sub.2 ;
Mpr-Har Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Cys-NH.sub.2 ;
Mpr (N.sup.G,N.sup.G' -ethylene-Har)-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Cys-NH.sub.2 ;
Mpr (N.sup.G,N.sup.G' -ethylene-Har-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Pen-NH.sub.2 ;
Mpr-(Phenylimidyl-Lys)-Gly-Asp-Trp-Pro-Pen-NH.sub.2 ; and
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