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Claims for Patent: 5,604,229

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Claims for Patent: 5,604,229

Title: 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound and immunosuppressant
Abstract:2-Amino-1,3-propanediol compounds of the formula (I) ##STR1## wherein R is an optionally substituted straight- or branched carbon chain, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl or the like, and R.sup.2, R.sup.3, R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each is a hydrogen, an alkyl, an aralkyl, an acyl or an alkoxycarbonyl, pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and immunosuppressants comprising these compounds as active ingredients. The 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compounds of the present invention show immunosuppressive action and are useful for suppressing rejection in organ or bone marrow tranplantation, prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases or as reagents for use in medicinal and pharmaceutical fields.
Inventor(s): Fujita; Tetsuro (Muko, JP), Sasaki; Shigeo (Kobe, JP), Yoneta; Masahiko (Kobe, JP), Mishina; Tadashi (Iruma, JP), Adachi; Kunitomo (Iruma, JP), Chiba; Kenji (Iruma, JP)
Assignee: Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, JP) Taito Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP)
Application Number:08/244,942
Patent Claims: 1. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, having the formula ##STR437## wherein Re is a phenylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a phenylalkyl which may be substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkenyloxy, phenylalkoxy, halophenylalkoxy, phenylalkoxyalkyl, phenoxyalkoxy or phenoxyalkyl; a cycloalkylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a cycloalkylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heteroarylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heteroarylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heterocyclic alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, or a heterocyclic alkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms;

wherein the alkyl moiety may have, in the carbon chain, a bond or a hereto atom selected from the group consisting of a double bond, a triple bond, oxygen, sulfur, sulfinyl, sulfonyl, --N(R.sup.6)-- where R.sup.6 is hydrogen, alkyl, aralkyl, acyl or alkoxycarbonyl, and carbonyl, and may have, as a substituent, alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy or carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 1, having the formula ##STR438## wherein Rf is a phenylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms which may have, in the carbon chain, one or two oxygen atoms; a phenylalkyl which may be substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C20 alkenyloxy, phenylalkoxy, halophenylalkoxy, phenylalkoxyalkyl, phenoxyalkoxy or phenoxyalkyl; a cycloalkylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms which may have, in the carbon chain, one or two oxygen atoms; a cycloalkylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heteroarylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms which may have, in the carbon chain, one or two oxygen atoms; a heteroarylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heterocyclic alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms which may have, in the carbon chain, one or two oxygen atoms, or a heterocyclic alkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 20 carbon atoms;

wherein the alkyl moiety may have, in the carbon chain, a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy and carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

3. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of any one of claims 1 or 2, having the formula ##STR439## wherein Rg is a phenylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety is a straight- or branched chain having 6 to 20 carbon atoms which may have, in the carbon chain, one or two oxygen atoms; a phenylalkyl which may be substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkenyloxy, phenylalkoxy, halophenylalkoxy, phenylalkoxyalkyl, phenoxyalkoxy or phenoxyalkyl; a cycloalkylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a cycloalkylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 14 carbon atoms; a heteroarylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms; a heteroarylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 14 carbon atoms; a heterocyclic alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms, or a heterocyclic alkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain alkyl having 6 to 14 carbon atoms; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

4. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR440## wherein Rh is a phenylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms, a phenylalkoxyalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety and alkoxy moiety have 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, a phenoxyalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms or a phenoxyalkoxyalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety and alkoxy moiety have 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

5. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 4, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-(8-phenyloctyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(9-phenylnonyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(10-phenyldecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(11-phenylundecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(12-phenyldodecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(13-phenyltridecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(14-phenyltetradecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(15-phenylpentadecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(16-phenylhexadecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[6-(8-phenyloctyloxy)hexyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(8-phenylmethyloxyoctyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(9-phenoxynonyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(12-phenoxydodecyl)-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[6-(2-phenoxyethyloxy)hexyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

6. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 4, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-(10-phenyldecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(13-phenyltridecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[6-(8-phenyloctyloxy)hexyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(8-phenylmethyloxyoctyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(9-phenoxynonyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(12-phenoxydodecyl)-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[6-(2-phenoxyethyloxy)hexyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

7. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR441## wherein Ri is a phenylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen or a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkenyloxy,

wherein the alkyl moiety of phenylalkyl may be substituted by hydroxy, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

8. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 7, having the formula ##STR442## wherein Rj is a phenylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen or a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkenyloxy, wherein the alkyl moiety is a C2-C6 alkyl optionally substituted by hydroxy, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

9. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 7, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tridecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tetradecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-hexyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tridecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(8-fluorooctyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(12-fluorododecyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-fluoroheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(11-fluoroundecyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-octenyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

10. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 7, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-octenyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

11. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR443## wherein Rk is a phenylalkyl substituted by phenylalkoxy, halophenylalkoxy, phenylalkoxyalkyl, phenoxyalkoxy or phenoxyalkyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

12. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 11, having the formula ##STR444## wherein Rl is a phenylalkyl substituted by phenylalkoxy wherein the alkoxy moiety has 2 to 8 carbon atoms, halophenylalkoxy wherein the alkoxy moiety has 2 to 8 carbon atoms, phenylalkoxyalkyl wherein the alkoxy moiety and alkyl moiety have 2 to 8 carbon atoms in total, phenoxyalkoxy wherein the alkoxy moiety has 2 to 8 carbon atoms or phenoxyalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 2 to 8 carbon atoms, where the alkyl moiety has 2 to 6 carbon atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

13. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 11, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-phenylmethyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(2-phenylethyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(3-phenylpropyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenylbutyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenylpentyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenylhexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenylheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(8-phenyloctyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[4-(6-(4-fluorophenyl)hexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenylpentyloxymethyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenoxybutyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenoxypentyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenoxyhexyloxy)phenyl) ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenoxyheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenoxybutyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenoxypentyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenoxyhexyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenoxyheptyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

14. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 11, which is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenylhexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and 2-amino-2-[2(4-(5-phenylpentyloxymethyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

15. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR445## wherein Rm is an alkyl-substituted cycloalkylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

16. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 15, which selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[3-(4-heptylcyclohexyl)propyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[4-(4-butylcyclohexyl)butyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylcyclohexyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonylcyclohexyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylcyclohexyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

17. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR446## wherein Rn is a 1-alkyl-substituted piperidin-4-ylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

18. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 17, which is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-2-[2-(1-octylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and 2-amino-2-[2-(1-dodecylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

19. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 3, having the formula ##STR447## wherein Ro is a thienylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms, an alkyl-substituted thienylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, a pyridylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms or an alkyl-substituted pyridylalkyl wherein the alkyl moiety has 6 to 20 carbon atoms in total, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

20. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 19, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(5-octyl-2-thienyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(5-nonyl-2-thienyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(5-decyl-2-thienyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(5-dodecyl-2-thienyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[13-(2-thienyl)tridecyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(5-octyl-2-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(5-decyl-2-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[13-(2-pyridyl)tridecyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(2-octyl-5-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(2-decyl-5-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[13-(3-pyridyl)tridecyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

21. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound, having the formula ##STR448## wherein Rp is a phenyl substituted by C6-C18 alkyl, a cycloalkyl, heteroaryl or a heterocycle, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

22. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 21, having the formula ##STR449## wherein Rq is a phenyl substituted by C6-C18 alkyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

23. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 21 or 22, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-(4-decylphenyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(4-dodecylphenyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(4-tetradecylphenyl)-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-(4-hexadecylphenyl)-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

24. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound, having the formula ##STR450## wherein R.sup.1 is an optionally substituted straight- or branched carbon chain which may have, in the chain, a bond, a hetero atom or a group selected from the group consisting of a double bond, a triple bond, oxygen, sulfur, sulfinyl, sulfonyl, --N(R.sup.6)-- where R.sup.6 is hydrogen, alkyl, aralkyl, acyl or alkoxycarbonyl, and carbonyl, optionally substituted arylene, optionally substituted cycloalkylene, optionally substituted heteroarylene and an alicycle thereof, and which may be substituted, at the chain end (.omega.-position) thereof, by a double bond, a triple bond, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl or an alicycle thereof, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl or an alicycle thereof, and

R.sup.2 a, R.sup.3 a, R.sup.4 a and R.sup.5 a are the same or different and each is a hydrogen, an alkyl, an acyl or an alkoxycarbonyl;

wherein the optionally substituted straight- or branched carbon chain may have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, alkylenedioxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxyimino, hydroxy, carboxy, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryloxy, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and an alicycle thereof; and the aforementioned optionally substituted arylene, optionally substituted cycloalkylene, optionally substituted heteroarylene, an alicycle thereof, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryloxy, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and an alicycle thereof may have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, alkylenedioxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkyl carbamoyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy and carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

25. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 24, having the formula ##STR451## wherein Rr is an alkyl optionally substituted by hydroxy and/or hydroxyimino which may have, in the chain, a double bond or carbonyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

26. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 24 or 25, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-(1,2,12-trihydroxy-4-octadecenyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(1,2-dihydroxy-4-octadecenyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(1,2-dihydroxyoctadecyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(1,12-dihydroxy-4-octadecenyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(1,2,4-trihydroxybutyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(1,2,12-trihydroxyoctadecyl)-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-(1,12-dihydroxyoctadecyl)-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

27. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 24, having the formula ##STR452## wherein Rs is a phenylalkyl substituted by a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkyl optionally substituted by halogen, a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkoxy optionally substituted by halogen or a straight- or branched chain C6-C14 alkenyloxy, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

28. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 27, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-undecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(8-fluorooctyl)phenyl)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(12-fluorododecyl)phenyl)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-fluoroheptyloxy)phenyl)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[1-hydroxy-2-(4-(11-fluoroundecyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanedio l, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

29. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound, having the formula ##STR453## wherein Rt is an optionally substituted straight- or branched carbon chain which may have, in the chain, a bond, a hetero atom or a group selected from the group consisting of a double bond, a triple bond, oxygen, sulfur, sulfinyl, sulfonyl, --N(R.sup.6)-- where R.sup.6 is hydrogen, alkyl, aralkyl, acyl or alkoxycarbonyl, carbonyl, optionally substituted arylene, optionally substituted cycloalkylene, optionally substituted heteroarylene and an alicycle thereof, an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl or an alicycle thereof, and

R.sup.2 a, R.sup.3 a, R.sup.4 a and R.sup.5 a are the same or different and each is a hydrogen, an alkyl, an acyl or an alkoxycarbonyl;

wherein the optionally substituted straight- or branched carbon chain may have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, alkylenedioxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy, carboxy, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryloxy, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and an alicycle thereof; and the aforementioned optionally substituted arylene, optionally substituted cycloalkylene, optionally substituted heteroarylene, an alicycle thereof, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryloxy, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and an alicycle thereof may have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, alkylenedioxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy and carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

30. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 29, having the formula ##STR454## wherein Ru is a phenyl substituted by alkyl having 4 to 16 carbon atoms, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

31. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 29 or 30, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decylphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tetradecylphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

32. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound, having the formula ##STR455## wherein Rv is an optionally substituted aryl, an optionally substituted cycloalkyl, an optionally substituted heteroaryl or an alicycle thereof;

R.sup.2 a, R.sup.3 a, R.sup.4 a and R.sup.5 a are the same or different and each is a hydrogen, an alkyl, an acyl or an alkoxycarbonyl;

X is an oxygen, a sulfur, a sulfinyl, a sulfonyl, --N(R.sup.6)-- where R.sup.6 is hydrogen, alkyl, aralkyl, acyl or alkoxycarbonyl; and

.alpha. and .beta. are 0 or an integer of 1-20 provided that .alpha.+.beta.=5-20, wherein the optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted cycloalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl and an alicycle thereof may have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, alkylenedioxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy and carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

33. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 32, having the formula ##STR456## wherein Rw is a phenyl substituted by C4-C16 alkyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

34. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 32 or 33, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-(4-octylphenoxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(4-decylphenoxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-(4-dodecylphenoxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-(4-tetradecylphenoxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

35. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 8, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tridecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tetradecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-hexyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-tridecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(8-fluorooctyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(12-fluorododecyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-fluoroheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(11-fluoroundecyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-octenyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

36. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 8, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-decylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-dodecylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-heptyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-octyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-nonyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-undecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-octenyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

37. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 12, which is selected from the group consisting of

2-amino-2-[2-(4-phenylmethyloxyphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(2-phenylethyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(3-phenylpropyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenylbutyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenylpentyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenylhexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenylheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(8-phenyloctyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[4-(6-(4-fluorophenyl)hexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenylpentyloxymethyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3 -propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenoxybutyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenoxypentyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenoxyhexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenoxyheptyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(4-phenoxybutyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenoxypentyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol,

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenoxyhexyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and

2-amino-2-[2-(4-(7-phenoxyheptyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

38. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of claim 12, which is selected from the group consisting of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-(6-phenylhexyloxy)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol and 2-amino-2-[2-(4-(5-phenylpentyloxymethyl)phenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

39. A 2-amino-1,3-propanediol compound of the formula ##STR457## wherein R.sup.1 b is a substituted straight- or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, a substituted straight- or branched chain alkenyl having 2 to 30 carbon atoms or a substituted straight- or branched chain alkynyl having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, and

R.sup.2 b, R.sup.3 b, R.sup.4 b and R.sup.5 b are the same or different and each is a hydrogen, an alkyl or an acyl;

wherein the substituted straight- or branched chain alkyl having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, substituted straight- or branched chain alkenyl having 2 to 30 carbon atoms and substituted straight- or branched chain alkynyl having 2 to 30 carbon atoms have a substituent selected from the group consisting of alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy, carboxy, optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted cycloalkyl; and the aforementioned optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted cycloalkyl may have 1 to 3 substituents selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxy, alkenyloxy, alkynyloxy, aralkyloxy, acyl, alkylamino, alkylthio, acylamino, alkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonylamino, acyloxy, alkylcarbamoyl, haloalkyl, nitro, halogen, amino, hydroxy and carboxy; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

40. A method for immunosuppression of an immune system of a mammal, which comprises administering to a mammal an immunosuppressing effective amount of any one of the compounds claimed in claims 1, 21, 24, 29 and 32.

41. A method for suppression of rejection in an organ or bone marrow transplantation in a mammal, which comprises administering to a mammal a rejection suppressing effective amount of any one of the compounds claimed in claims 1, 21, 24, 29 or 32.

42. A method for prevention or treatment of autoimmune disease, which comprises administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of any one of the compounds claimed in claims 1, 21, 24, 29 or 32.

43. The method according to claim 42, wherein the autoimmune disease is rheumatoid arthritis.

44. A method for prevention or treatment of psoriasis or atopic dermatitis, which comprises administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of any one of the compounds claimed in claims 1, 21, 24, 29 or 32.

45. A method for prevention or treatment of bronchial asthma or pollinosis, which comprises administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of any one of the compounds claimed in claims 1, 21, 24, 29 or 32.

46. The method according to claim 40, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

47. The method according to claim 41, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

48. The method according to claim 42, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

49. The method according to claim 43, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

50. The method according to claim 44, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

51. The method according to claim 45, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

52. The method according to any one of claims 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 or 45, wherein the compound is 2-amino-2-(2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl)-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride.
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