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Claims for Patent: 5,602,133

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Claims for Patent: 5,602,133

Title: Use of thiazolidinedione derivatives and related antihyperglycemic agents in the treatment of disease states at risk for progressing to noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Abstract:Novel methods of using thiazolidinone derivatives and related antihyperglycemic agents to treat populations at risk for developing noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and complications arising therefrom are disclosed. In one embodiment, the compounds of the invention are used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome in order to prevent or delay the onset of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In another embodiment, the compounds of the invention are used to treat gestational diabetes in order to prevent or delay the onset of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Inventor(s): Antonucci; Tammy (Meguon, WI), Lockwood; Dean (Ann Arbor, MI), Norris; Rebecca (Kewadin, MI)
Assignee: Warner-Lambert Company (Morris Plains, NJ)
Application Number:08/469,398
Patent Claims: 1. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I in unit dosage form: ##STR20## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group;

R.sup.3 represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 aliphatic acyl group, an alicyclic acyl group, an aromatic acyl group, a heterocyclic acyl group, an araliphatic acyl group, a (C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkoxy)carbonyl group, or an aralkyloxycarbonyl group;

R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkoxy group, or R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 together represent a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkylenedioxy group; n is 1, 2, or 3;

W represents the --CH.sub.2 --, >CO, or CH--OR.sup.6 group (in which R.sup.6 represents any 1 of the atoms or groups defined for R.sup.3 and may be the same as or different from R.sup.3); and

Y and Z are the same or different and each represents an oxygen atom or an imino (.dbd.NH) group;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

2. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to claim 1 in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent, or carrier.

3. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein Y and Z are oxygen.

4. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein W is --CH.sub.2 --.

5. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein n is 1.

6. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are lower alkyl and R.sub.3 is H.

7. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein Z and Y are oxygen, n is 1, and W is --CH.sub.2 --.

8. A method of claim 2 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein the compound is (+)-5-[[4-[(3,4-dihydro-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl )methoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione.

9. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II in unit dosage form ##STR21## wherein R.sub.11 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkoxy, cycloalkyl, phenylalkyl, phenyl, aromatic acyl group, a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group including 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or a group of the formula ##STR22## wherein R.sub.13 and R.sub.14 are the same or different and each is lower alkyl or R.sub.13 and R.sub.14 are combined to each other either directly or as interrupted by a heteroatom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur to form a 5- or 6-membered ring;

wherein R.sub.12 means a bond or a lower alkylene group; and

wherein L.sub.1 and L.sub.2 are the same or different and each is hydrogen or lower alkyl or L.sub.1 and L.sub.2 are combined to form an alkylene group, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

10. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to claim 9 in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent, or carrier.

11. A method of claim 10 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II wherein the compound is pioglitazone.

12. A method of claim 10 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II wherein the compound is ciglitazone.

13. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula III in unit dosage form ##STR23## wherein R.sub.15 and R.sub.16 are independently hydrogen, lower alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, alkoxy containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, halogen, ethynyl, nitrile, methylthio, trifluoromethyl, vinyl, nitro, or halogen substituted benzyloxy; n is 0 to 4 and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

14. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula IV in unit dosage form ##STR24## wherein the dotted line represents a bond or no bond; p1 V is --CH.dbd.CH--, --N.dbd.CH--, --CH.dbd.N-- or S;

D is CH.sub.2, CHOH, CO, C.dbd.NOR.sub.17 or CH.dbd.CH;

X is S, O, NR.sub.18, --CH.dbd.N or --N.dbd.CH;

Y is CH or N;

Z is hydrogen, (C.sub.1 -C.sub.7) alkyl, (C.sub.3 -C.sub.7) cycloalkyl, phenyl, naphthyl, pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, or phenyl mono- or disubstituted with the same or different groups which are (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3) alkyl, trifluoromethyl, (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3) alkoxy, fluoro, chloro, or bromo;

Z' is hydrogen or (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3) alkyl;

R.sub.17 and R.sub.18 are each independently hydrogen or methyl; and n is 1, 2, or 3;

the pharmaceutically acceptable cationic salts thereof;

and the pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts thereof when the compound contains a basic nitrogen.

15. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula V in unit dosage form ##STR25## wherein the dotted line represents a bond or no bond; A and B are each independently CH or N, with the proviso that when A or B is N, the other is CH;

X.sub.1 is S, SO, SO.sub.2, CH.sub.2, CHOH, or CO;

n is 0 or 1;

Y.sub.1 is CHR.sub.20 or R.sub.21, with the proviso that when n is 1 and Y.sub.1 is NR.sub.21, X.sub.1 is SO.sub.2 or CO;

Z.sub.2 is CHR.sub.22, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2, CH.dbd.CH ##STR26## OCH.sub.2, SCH.sub.2, SOCH.sub.2 or SO.sub.2 CH.sub.2 ; R.sub.19, R.sub.20, R.sub.21, and R.sub.22 are each independently hydrogen or methyl; and

X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 are each independently hydrogen, methyl, trifluoromethyl, phenyl, benzyl, hydroxy, methoxy, phenoxy, benzyloxy, bromo, chloro, or fluoro;

a pharmaceutically acceptable cationic salt thereof; or a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt thereof when A or B is N.

16. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VI in unit dosage form ##STR27## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R.sub.23 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3 to 7 carbon atoms, phenyl, or mono- or disubstituted phenyl wherein said substituents are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 3 carbon atoms, halogen, or trifluoromethyl.

17. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VII in unit dosage form ##STR28## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.2 represents an alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, or an aralkyl group wherein the alkylene or the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted;

A.sub.3 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 3 optional substituents;

R.sub.24 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group wherein the alkyl, or the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; or A.sub.2 together with R.sub.24 represents substituted or unsubstituted C.sub.2-3 polymethylene group, optional substituents for the polymethylene group being selected from alkyl or aryl or adjacent substituents together with the methylene carbon atoms to which they are attached form a substituted or unsubstituted phenylene group;

R.sub.25 and R.sub.26 each represent hydrogen, or R.sub.25 and R.sub.26 together represent a bond;

X.sub.4 represents O or S; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

18. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VIII in unit dosage form ##STR29## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate therefor, wherein:

R.sub.27 and R.sub.28 each independently represent an alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, or an aralkyl group being substituted or unsubstituted in the aryl or alkyl moiety; or R.sub.27 together with R.sub.28 represents a linking group, the linking group consisting of an optionally substituted methylene group and either a further optionally substituted methylene group or an O or S atom, optional substituents for the said methylene groups being selected from alkyl-, aryl, or aralkyl, or substituents of adjacent methylene groups together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached form a substituted or unsubstituted phenylene group;

R.sub.29 and R.sub.30 each represent hydrogen, or R.sub.29 and R.sub.30 together represent a bond;

A.sub.4 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 3 optional substituents;

X.sub.5 represents O or S; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

19. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula IX in unit dosage form ##STR30## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.5 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic heterocyclyl group;

A.sub.6 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 5 substituents;

X.sub.6 represents O, S, or NR.sub.32 wherein R.sub.32 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group, wherein the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

Y.sub.2 represents O or S;

R.sub.31 represents an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

20. A method of treating polycystic ovary syndrome comprising administering to a host suffering therefrom a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula X in unit dosage form ##STR31## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.7 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

A.sub.8 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 5 substituents;

X.sub.8 represents O, S, or NR.sub.39 wherein R.sub.39 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group, wherein the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

Y.sub.3 represents O or S;

R.sub.37 represents hydrogen;

R.sub.38 represents hydrogen or an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group or R.sub.37 together with R.sub.38 represents a bond; and n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

21. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I in unit dosage form: ##STR32## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group;

R.sup.3 represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 aliphatic acyl group, an alicyclic acyl group, an aromatic acyl group, a heterocyclic acyl group, an araliphatic acyl group, a (C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkoxy)carbonyl group, or an aralkyloxycarbonyl group;

R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkoxy group, or R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 together represent a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkylenedioxy group; n is 1, 2, or 3;

W represents the --CH.sub.2 --, >CO, CH--OR.sup.6 group (in which R.sup.6 represents any 1 of the atoms or groups defined for R.sup.3 and may be the same as or different from R.sup.3); and

Y and Z are the same or different and each represents an oxygen atom or an imino (.dbd.NH) group;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

22. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to claim 21 in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent, or carrier.

23. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein Y and Z are oxygen.

24. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein W is --CH.sub.2 --.

25. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein n is 1.

26. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are lower alkyl and R.sub.3 is H.

27. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein Z and Y are oxygen, n is 1, and W is --CH.sub.2 --.

28. A method of claim 22 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I wherein the compound is (+)-5-[[4-[(3,4-dihydro-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl )methoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione.

29. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II in unit dosage form ##STR33## wherein R.sub.11 is substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkoxy, cycloalkyl, phenylalkyl, phenyl, aromatic acyl group, a 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic group including 1 or 2 heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, or a group of the formula ##STR34## wherein R.sub.13 and R.sub.14 are the same or different and each is lower alkyl or R.sub.13 and R.sub.14 are combined to each other either directly or as interrupted by a heteroatom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur to form a 5- or 6-membered ring;

wherein R.sub.12 means a bond or a lower alkylene group; and

wherein L.sub.1 and L.sub.2 are the same or different and each is hydrogen or lower alkyl or L.sub.1 and L.sub.2 are combined to form an alkylene group, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

30. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound according to claim 29 in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, diluent, or carrier.

31. A method of claim 30 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II wherein the compound is pioglitazone.

32. A method of claim 30 comprising administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula II wherein the compound is ciglitazone.

33. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula III in unit dosage form ##STR35## wherein R.sub.15 and R.sub.16 are independently hydrogen, lower alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, alkoxy containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, halogen, ethynyl, nitrile, methylthio, trifluoromethyl, vinyl, nitro, or halogen substituted benzyloxy; n is 0 to 4 and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

34. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula IV in unit dosage form ##STR36## wherein the dotted line represents a bond or no bond; V is --CH.dbd.CH--, --N.dbd.CH--, --CH.dbd.N-- or S;

D is CH.sub.2, CHOH, CO, C.dbd.NOR.sub.17 or CH.dbd.CH;

X is S, O, NR.sub.18, --CH.dbd.N or --N.dbd.CH;

Y is CH or N;

Z is hydrogen, (C.sub.1 -C.sub.7) alkyl, (C.sub.3 -C.sub.7)cycloalkyl, phenyl, naphthyl, pyridyl, furyl, thienyl, or phenyl mono- or disubstituted with the same or different groups which are (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3)alkyl, trifluoromethyl, (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3)alkoxy, fluoro, chloro, or bromo;

Z' is hydrogen or (C.sub.1 -C.sub.3)alkyl;

R.sub.17 and R.sub.18 are each independently hydrogen or methyl; and n is 1, 2, or 3;

the pharmaceutically acceptable cationic salts thereof; and the pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts thereof when the compound contains a basic nitrogen.

35. A method preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula V in unit dosage form ##STR37## wherein the dotted line represents a bond or no bond; A and B are each independently CH or N, with the proviso that when A or B is N, the other is CH;

X.sub.1 is S, SO, SO.sub.2, CH.sub.2, CHOH, or CO;

n is 0 or 1;

Y.sub.1 is CHR.sub.20 or R.sub.21, with the proviso that when n is 1 and Y.sub.1 is NR.sub.21, X.sub.1 is SO.sub.2 or CO;

Z.sub.2 is CHR.sub.22, CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2, ##STR38## OCH.sub.2, SCH.sub.2, SOCH.sub.2 or SO.sub.2 CH.sub.2 ; R.sub.19, R.sub.20, R.sub.21, and R.sub.22 are each independently hydrogen or methyl; and

X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 are each independently hydrogen, methyl, trifluoromethyl, phenyl, benzyl, hydroxy, methoxy, phenoxy, benzyloxy, bromo, chloro, or fluoro;

a pharmaceutically acceptable cationic salt thereof; or

a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt thereof when A or B is N.

36. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VI in unit dosage form ##STR39## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof wherein R.sub.23 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl of 3 to 7 carbon atoms, phenyl, or mono- or disubstituted phenyl wherein said substituents are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 3 carbon atoms, halogen, or trifluoromethyl.

37. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VII in unit dosage form ##STR40## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.2 represents an alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, or an aralkyl group wherein the alkylene or the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted;

A.sub.3 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 3 optional substituents;

R.sub.24 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group wherein the alkyl, or the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group; or A.sub.2 together with R.sub.24 represents substituted or unsubstituted C.sub.2-3 polymethylene group, optional substituents for the polymethylene group being selected from alkyl or aryl or adjacent substituents together with the methylene carbon atoms to which they are attached form a substituted or unsubstituted phenylene group;

R.sub.25 and R.sub.26 each represent hydrogen, or R.sub.25 and R.sub.26 together represent a bond;

X.sub.4 represents O or S; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

38. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula VIII in unit dosage form ##STR41## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate therefor, wherein:

R.sub.27 and R.sub.28 each independently represent an alkyl group, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group, or an aralkyl group being substituted or unsubstituted in the aryl or alkyl moiety; or R.sub.27 together with R.sub.28 represents a linking group, the linking group consisting of an optionally substituted methylene group and either a further optionally substituted methylene group or an O or S atom, optional substituents for the said methylene groups being selected from alkyl-, aryl, or aralkyl, or substituents of adjacent methylene groups together with the carbon atoms to which they are attached form a substituted or unsubstituted phenylene group;

R.sub.29 and R.sub.30 each represent hydrogen, or R.sub.29 and R.sub.30 together represent a bond;

A.sub.4 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 3 optional substituents;

X.sub.5 represents O or S; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

39. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula IX in unit dosage form ##STR42## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.5 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic heterocyclyl group;

A.sub.6 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 5 substituents;

X.sub.6 represents O, S, or NR.sub.32 wherein R.sub.32 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group, wherein the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

Y.sub.2 represents O or S;

R.sub.31 represents an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group; and n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

40. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from gestational diabetes a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula X in unit dosage form ##STR43## or a tautomeric form thereof and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable solvate thereof, wherein:

A.sub.7 represents a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

A.sub.8 represents a benzene ring having in total up to 5 substituents;

X.sub.8 represents O, S, or NR.sub.39 wherein R.sub.39 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, an acyl group, an aralkyl group, wherein the aryl moiety may be substituted or unsubstituted, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;

Y.sub.3 represents O or S;

R.sub.37 represents hydrogen;

R.sub.38 represents hydrogen or an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group or R.sub.37 together with R.sub.38 represents a bond; and

n represents an integer in the range of from 2 to 6.

41. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from Syndrome X a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I in unit dosage form: ##STR44## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group;

R.sup.3 represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1-6 aliphatic acyl group, an alicyclic acyl group, an aromatic acyl group, a heterocyclic acyl group, an araliphatic acyl group, a (C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkoxy)carbonyl group, or an aralkyloxycarbonyl group;

R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkoxy group, or R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 together represent a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkylenedioxy group; n is 1, 2, or 3;

W represents the --CH.sub.2 --, >CO, CH--OR.sup.6 group (in which R.sup.6 represents any 1 of the atoms or groups defined for R.sup.3 and may be the same as or different from R.sup.3); and

Y and Z are the same or different and each represents an oxygen atom or an imino (.dbd.NH) group;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

42. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from concomitant hyperinsulinemia a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I in unit dosage form: ##STR45## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group;

R.sup.3 represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 aliphatic acyl group, an alicyclic acyl group, an aromatic acyl group, a heterocyclic acyl group, an araliphatic acyl group, a (C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkoxy)carbonyl group, or an aralkyloxycarbonyl group;

R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkoxy group, or R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 together represent a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkylenedioxy group; n is 1, 2, or 3;

W represents the --CH.sub.2 --, >CO, CH--OR.sup.6 group (in which R.sup.6 represents any 1 of the atoms or groups defined for R.sup.3 and may be the same as or different from R.sup.3); and

Y and Z are the same or different and each represents an oxygen atom or an imino (.dbd.NH) group;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

43. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus comprising administering to a host suffering from insulin resistance characterized by hyperinsulinemia and by failure to respond to exogenous insulin a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of Formula I in unit dosage form: ##STR46## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group;

R.sup.3 represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 aliphatic acyl group, an alicyclic acyl group, an aromatic acyl group, a heterocyclic acyl group, an araliphatic acyl group, a (C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 alkoxy)carbonyl group, or an aralkyloxycarbonyl group;

R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 are the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkyl group or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.5 alkoxy group, or R.sup.4 and R.sup.5 together represent a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkylenedioxy group; n is 1, 2, or 3;

W represents the --CH.sub.2 --, >CO, CH--OR.sup.6 group (in which R.sup.6 represents any 1 of the atoms or groups defined for R.sup.3 and may be the same as or different from R.sup.3); and

Y and Z are the same or different and each represents an oxygen atom or an imino (.dbd.NH) group;

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.
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