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Claims for Patent: 5,585,112

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Claims for Patent: 5,585,112

Title: Method of preparing gas and gaseous precursor-filled microspheres
Abstract:Methods of and apparatus for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled liposomes are described. Gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by these methods are particularly useful, for example, in ultrasonic imaging applications and in therapeutic drug delivery systems.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: ImaRx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Tucson, AZ)
Application Number:08/159,687
Patent Claims: 1. Gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by a gel state shaking gaseous precursor instillation method, said method comprising adding a lipid to an aqueous solution or suspension, shaking said lipid-containing aqueous solution or suspension in the presence of a temperature activated gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid, wherein said gaseous precursor is a fluorine-containing gaseous precursor, said fluorine-containing gaseous precursor selected from the group consisting of perfluorocarbons, fluorohydrocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, wherein upon activation of said gaseous precursor to a gas said liposomes have at least about a 90% volume of gas in the interior thereof.

2. Gas-filled liposomes prepared by a gel state shaking gas instillation method, said liposomes comprising a lipid and a fluorine-containing gas, said fluorine-containing gas selected from the group consisting of perfluorocarbons, fluorohydrocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, said liposomes prepared by a method comprising adding a lipid to an aqueous solution or suspension, shaking said lipid-containing aqueous solution or suspension in the presence of a temperature activated gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid, said liposomes having at least about a 90% volume of gas in the interior thereof.

3. The liposomes of claim 2 wherein said lipid is selected from the group consisting of fatty acids; lysolipids; sphingolipids; glycolipids; glucolipids; sulfatides; glycosphingolipids; lipids with ether and ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, phospholipids with short chain fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, and synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains.

4. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said polymer is between 400 and 200,000 molecular weight.

5. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said polymer is between 1,000 and 20,000 molecular weight.

6. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said polymer is between 2,000 and 8,000 molecular weight.

7. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said lipid bearing a covalently bound polymer comprises compounds of the formula XCHY--(CH.sub.2)n--O--(CH.sub.2)n--YCHX wherein X is an alcohol group, Y is OH or an alkyl group and n is 0 to 10,000.

8. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylalcohol and polypropyleneglycol.

9. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said polymer is polyethyleneglycol.

10. The liposomes of claim 3 wherein said lipid comprises from about 1 mole % to about 20 mole %.

11. The gas-filled liposomes of claim 2 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is selected from the group consisting of fluorine gas, 1-fluorobutane, hexafluoro acetone, tetrafluoroallene, boron trifluoride, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, 1-fluoro-butane, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, 1-fluoro-butane, decafluoro butane, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-2-butene, 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne, perfluoro-2-butyne, octafluoro-cyclobutane, perfluoro-cyclobutene, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, 1,1,1-trifluorodiazoethane, hexafluoro-dimethyl amine, perfluorodimethylamine, 4-methyl,1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,2-difluoro ethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro ethane, 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane, chloropentafluoro ethane, dichlorotrifluoroethane, fluoro-ethane, hexafluoro-ethane, nitro-pentafluoro ethane, nitroso-pentafluoro ethane, perfluoro ethane, perfluoro ethylamine, 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoro ethylene, 1,2-difluoro ethylene, methane-sulfonyl chloride-trifluoro, methanesulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro, methane-(pentafluorothio)trifluoro, methane-bromo difluoro nitroso, methane-bromo fluoro, methane-bromo chloro-fluoro, methanebromo-trifluoro, methane-chloro difluoro nitro, methanechloro fluoro, methane-chloro trifluoro, methane-chloro-difluoro, methane dibromo difluoro, methane-dichloro difluoro, methane-dichloro-fluoro, methanedifluoro, methane-difluoro-iodo, methane-fluoro, methane-iodo-trifluoro, methane-nitro-trifluoro, methane-nitroso-trifluoro, methane-tetrafluoro, methane-trichlorofluoro, methane-trifluoro, methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro, pentane-perfluoro, 1-pentane-perfluoro, propane-1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3-hexafluoro, propane-2,2 difluoro, propane-heptafluoro-1-nitro, propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso, propane-perfluoro, propyl-1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro, propylene-3-fluoro, propylene-perfluoro, propyne-3,3,3-trifluoro, styrene-3-fluoro, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfur (di)-decafluoro, trifluoroacetonitrile, trifluoromethyl peroxide, trifluoromethyl sulfide, tungsten hexafluoride, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, perfluorotributylamine, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1 dichloro, fluoro ethane, hexa- fluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, perfluorobutane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3-diene, and octafluorocyclopentene.

12. The gas-filled liposomes of claim 11 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is selected from the group consisting of fluorine gas, perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, octafluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, octafluorocyclopentene, dodecafluoropentane, and octafluorocyclobutane.

13. The liposomes of claim 12 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluorocyclobutane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

14. The liposomes of claim 13 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, and perfluorobutane.

15. The liposomes of claim 14 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is perfluoropropane.

16. The liposomes of claim 2 wherein said fluorine-containing gas is a perfluorocarbon gas.

17. The liposomes of claim 16 wherein said perfluorocarbon gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, and perfluorocyclobutane.

18. The liposomes of claim 17 wherein said perfluorocarbon gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, and perfluorobutane.

19. The liposomes of claim 18 wherein said perfluorocarbon gas is perfluoropropane.

20. The gaseous precursor-filled liposomes of claim 1 for use with a nebulizer, said liposomes targeted to the lung.

21. The liposomes of claim 2 wherein said lipid is selected from the group consisting of phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine, dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1, ganglioside GM2, phosphatidic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, lipids bearing polyethyleneglycol, chitin, hyaluronic acid or polyvinylpyrrolidone, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, cholesterol hemisuccinate, tocopherol hemisuccinate, diacetyl phosphate, stearylamine, cardiolipin, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyldiglyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)-octadecanoic acid, N-[12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methyl-amino) octadecanoyl]-2-aminopalmitic acid, cholesteryl)4'-trimethyl-ammonio)butanoate, N-succinyldioleoylphosphatidylethanol-amine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol,1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-succinylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-succinylglycerol,1-hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophosphoet hanolamine, palmitoylhomocysteine, lauryltrimethylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium bromide, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine.
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