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Details for Patent: 9,089,497

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Details for Patent: 9,089,497

Title:Method of drug formulation based on increasing the affinity of active agents for crystalline microparticle surfaces
Abstract: Methods are provided for promoting the adsorption of an active agent to microparticles by modifying the structural properties of the active agent in order to facilitate favorable association to the microparticle.
Inventor(s): Hokenson; Mark (Valencia, CA), Oberg; Keith A. (Valencia, CA)
Assignee: MannKind Corporation (Valencia, CA)
Filing Date:Sep 16, 2010
Application Number:12/883,369
Claims:1. A process for preparing a drug delivery composition comprising an active agent and a crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprising the steps in the sequence set forth of: i) providing an active agent solution comprising a protein, polypeptide or peptide active agent molecule and providing a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle in a suspension or powder; next ii) combining said active agent solution with said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle suspension or powder to form a fluid phase; and iii) then modifying the chemical potential of the active agent in the fluid phase; wherein said modifying step causes adsorption of said active agent onto a surface of said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle to provide a coating of said active agent on said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein modifying the chemical potential comprises modifying the structure, flexibility, rigidity, solubility or stability of the active agent.

3. The process of claim 2 wherein modifying the chemical potential of the active agent comprises altering fluid phase conditions.

4. The process of claim 3 wherein said altering fluid phase conditions comprise adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase and wherein said active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, hexylene-glycol (Hex-Gly), trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol, proline, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium sulfate.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein said active agent modifier is sodium chloride.

6. The method of claim 4 wherein the active agent modifier improves the structural stability or pharmacodynamics of the active agent.

7. The process of claim 1 wherein said modifying step comprises adding the active agent solution to the suspension or powder of preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticles.

8. The method of claim 7 wherein the pH is changed prior to the addition of active agent.

9. The method of claim 7 wherein the pH is changed subsequent to the addition of active agent.

10. The process of claim 1 wherein the active agent is selected from the group consisting of insulin, ghrelin, growth hormone, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).

11. The process of claim 1 wherein modifying the chemical potential of the active agent comprises modulating one or more energetically favorable interactions with the crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle surface.

12. The process of claim 11 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and microparticle comprises a hydrophobic interaction.

13. The process of claim 11 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and microparticle comprises a hydrogen bonding interaction.

14. The process of claim 11 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and the crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprises an electrostatic interaction.

15. The process of claim 1 further comprising a step for removing the solvent after adsorption of said active agent.

16. The process of claim 1 wherein the modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, hexylene-glycol (Hex-Gly), trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol, proline, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium sulfate.

17. The process of claim 1 wherein the modifying step comprises the addition of water and wherein said modification decreases the solubility of the active agent.

18. The process of claim 1 wherein modifying the chemical potential of the active agent improves the structural stability of the active agent molecule.

19. The process of claim 1 wherein the diketopiperazine is fumaryl diketopiperazine.

20. The process of claim 1 wherein the active agent is insulin.

21. The process of claim 1 wherein the modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase selected from the group consisting of salts, surfactants, ions, osmolytes, alcohols, chaotropes, kosmotropes, acids, bases, and organic solvents.

22. A process for preparing a drug delivery composition comprising an active agent and a crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprising the steps in the sequence set forth of: i) providing an active agent solution comprising a protein, polypeptide or peptide active agent molecule and providing a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle in a suspension or powder; next ii) modifying the chemical potential of the active agent in the active agent solution; and iii) then combining said active agent solution with said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle suspension or powder to form a fluid phase wherein said modifying step causes adsorption of said active agent onto a surface of said preformed crystalline microparticle to provide a coating of said active agent on said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle.

23. The process of claim 22 wherein the crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprises fumaryl diketopiperazine.

24. The process of claim 22 wherein the active agent is insulin.

25. The process of claim 22 wherein said modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the active agent solution wherein the active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of salts, surfactants, ions, osmolytes, alcohols, chaotropes, kosmotropes, acids, bases, and organic solvents.
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