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Details for Patent: 7,803,404

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Details for Patent: 7,803,404

Title:Method of drug formulation based on increasing the affinity of active agents for crystalline microparticle surfaces
Abstract: Methods are provided for promoting the adsorption of an active agent to microparticles by modifying the structural properties of the active agent in order to facilitate favorable association to the microparticle.
Inventor(s): Hokenson; Mark (Valencia, CA), Oberg; Keith A. (Valencia, CA)
Assignee: MannKind Corporation (Valencia, CA)
Filing Date:Sep 14, 2006
Application Number:11/532,065
Claims:1. A method of promoting binding of an active agent to a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle in suspension comprising the steps in the sequence set forth of: i) modifying the chemical potential of the active agent wherein said modifying allows for an energetically favorable interaction between the active agent and the preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle independent of removal of solvent; followed by ii) allowing adsorption of the active agent onto the surface of the preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle; wherein said modifying step causes said adsorbing of said active agent onto a surface of said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle to provide a coating of said active agent on said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle; and wherein said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle does not comprise an active agent.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein modifying the chemical potential comprises modifying the structure, flexibility, rigidity, solubility or stability of the active agent.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein modifying the chemical potential of the active agent comprises altering solution conditions.

4. The method of claim 3 wherein said active agent is a peptide or a protein and said altering solution conditions comprise adding an active agent modifier to the solution and wherein said active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, hexylene-glycol (Hex-Gly), trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol, proline, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium sulfate.

5. The method of claim 4 wherein said active agent modifier is sodium chloride.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein said modifying step comprises dissolving the active agent in a fluid phase of the suspension of preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticles and changing the pH of the fluid phase.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein the pH is changed prior to the addition of active agent.

8. The method of claim 6 wherein the pH is changed subsequent to the addition of active agent.

9. The method of claim 4 wherein the active agent modifier improves the structural stability or pharmacodynamics of the active agent.

10. The method of claim 1 wherein the active agent is a protein, peptide or polypeptide.

11. The method of claim 10 wherein the active agent is selected from the group consisting of insulin, ghrelin, growth hormone, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).

12. The method of claim 2 wherein modifying the chemical potential of the active agent comprises modulating one or more energetically favorable interactions with the crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle surface.

13. The method of claim 12 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and the crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprises an electrostatic interaction.

14. The method of claim 12 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and microparticle comprises a hydrophobic interaction.

15. The method of claim 12 wherein the one or more energetically favorable interactions between the active agent and microparticle comprises a hydrogen bonding interaction.

16. The method of claim 1 wherein the diketopiperazine is fumaryl diketopiperazine.

17. The method of claim 1 further comprising a step for removing the solvent after the allowing step.

18. A process for preparing a drug delivery composition comprising an active agent and a crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprising the steps in the sequence set forth of: i) providing an active agent solution comprising an active agent molecule and providing a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle in a suspension or powder; next ii) combining said active agent solution with said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle suspension or powder to form a fluid phase; and iii) then modifying the chemical potential of the active agent in the fluid phase; wherein said modifying step causes adsorption of said active agent onto a surface of said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle to provide a coating of said active agent on said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle.

19. The process of claim 18 wherein the modifying step allows for interaction between the active agent and the preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle.

20. The process of claim 18 wherein the modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase, said active agent comprises a peptide or a protein, and wherein said active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, hexylene-glycol (Hex-Gly), trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol, proline, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium sulfate.

21. The process of claim 18 wherein the modifying step comprises the addition of water and wherein said modification decreases the solubility of the active agent.

22. The process of claim 18 wherein the modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase and the active agent modifier promotes association between the active agent and a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle, wherein said active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium sulfate, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, hexylene-glycol, trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol and proline.

23. The process of claim 18 wherein the modifying step comprises adding an active agent modifier to the fluid phase and the active agent modifier improves the structural stability of the active agent molecule, wherein said active agent modifier is selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride NaSCN, (CH.sub.3).sub.3N--HCl, Na.sub.2NO.sub.3, NaClO.sub.4, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium sulfate, methanol, ethanol, trifluoroethanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, hexylene-glycol, trehalose, glycine, polyethylene glycol, trimethylamine N-oxide, mannitol and proline.

24. The process of claim 18 wherein the diketopiperazine is fumaryl diketopiperazine.

25. A process for preparing a drug delivery composition comprising an active agent and a crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle comprising the steps in the sequence set forth of: i) providing an active agent solution comprising an active agent molecule and providing a preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle in a suspension or powder; next ii) modifying the chemical potential of the active agent in the active agent solution; and iii) then combining said active agent solution with said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle suspension or powder to form a fluid phase wherein said modifying step causes adsorption of said active agent onto a surface of said preformed crystalline microparticle to provide a coating of said active agent on said preformed crystalline diketopiperazine microparticle.
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