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Details for Patent: 7,335,379

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Details for Patent: 7,335,379

Title:Transdermal pharmaceutical formulation for minimizing skin residues
Abstract: This invention relates to novel transdermal or transmucosal pharmaceutical formulation which reduces the occurrences of contamination of other individuals and the transference to clothing of the user. The novel formulation includes at least one pharmacologically active ingredient, and a solvent system having a monoalkylether of diethylene glycol and a glycol present in specified ratios, and a mixture of water and alcohol. The invention also relates to a method for inhibiting or delaying crystallization of an active agent in a pharmaceutical formulation.
Inventor(s): Carrara; R. Dario Norberto (Oberwil, CH), Grenier; Arnaud (Steinbrunn le Haut, FR), Besse; Celine (Saint Louis, FR)
Assignee: Antares Pharma IPL AG (Zug, CH)
Filing Date:Mar 07, 2006
Application Number:11/371,042
Claims:1. A transdermal or transmucosal non-occlusive, semi-solid pharmaceutical formulation comprising: at least one active agent of an anti-Parkinson drug, an anti-Alzheimer drug, or an analgesic drug; and a solvent system present in an amount sufficient to solubilize the at least one active ingredient and characterized in that it includes: (i) a pharmaceutically acceptable monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system; (ii) a pharmaceutically acceptable glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system, with the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and glycol being present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1 or 1:2 to 1:10 and wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol in combination are present in an amount of at least 15% and no more than 60% of the formulation; and (iii) a mixture of a C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol and water which mixture is present in an amount of between about 40% and 98% of the solvent system, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is present in an amount of about 5% to 80% of the mixture, and the water is present in an amount of about 20% to 95% of the mixture, so that, compared to formulations containing the same components but in different amounts and ratios, the present solvent system (a) inhibits crystallization of the at least one active ingredient on a skin or mucosal surface of a mammal, (b) reduces or prevents transfer of the formulation to clothing or to another being, (c) modulates biodistribution of the at least one active agent within different layers of skin, (d) facilitates absorption of the at least one active agent by a skin or a mucosal surface of a mammal, or (e) provides a combination of one or more of (a) through (d).

2. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1.

3. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

4. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol is selected from the group consisting of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether or mixtures thereof.

5. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the glycol is selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol or mixtures thereof.

6. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the glycol modulates the capacity of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether to build a skin depot.

7. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is selected from the group consisting of ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, or mixtures thereof.

8. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, further including a permeation enhancer present in an amount sufficient to increase permeability of the active agent across a dermal or mucosal surface of a mammal.

9. A transdermal or transmucosal non-occlusive, semi-solid pharmaceutical formulation, comprising: at least one active agent; and a solvent system present in an amount sufficient to solubilize the at least one active ingredient and characterized in that it includes: (i) a pharmaceutically acceptable monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system; (ii) a pharmaceutically acceptable glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system, with the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and glycol being present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1 or 1:2 to 1:10 and wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol in combination are present in an amount of at least 15% and no more than 60% of the formulation; and (iii) a mixture of a C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol and water which mixture is present in an amount of between about 40% and 98% of the solvent system, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is present in an amount of about 5% to 80% of the mixture, and the water is present in an amount of about 20% to 95% of the mixture, so that, compared to formulations containing the same components but in different amounts and ratios, the present solvent system (a) inhibits crystallization of the at least one active ingredient on a skin or mucosal surface of a mammal, (b) reduces or prevents transfer of the formulation to clothing or to another being, (c) modulates biodistribution of the at least one active agent within different layers of skin, (d) facilitates absorption of the at least one active agent by a skin or a mucosal surface of a mammal, or (e) provides a combination of one or more of (a) through (d); wherein the formulation further includes lauryl alcohol or myristyl alcohol present in an amount from 0.5 to 2% by weight of the total formulation.

10. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the at least one active ingredient includes a hormone or an anti-hormone.

11. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug selected from the group consisting of selegilline, trihexyphenidyl, tropatepione, bipeiden, procyclidine, benzatropine, orphenadrine, bornaprine, metixene, or levodopa, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

12. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson in combination with a decarboxylase inhibitor.

13. A transdermal or transmucosal pharmaceutical formulation comprising: at least one active agent; and a solvent system present in an amount sufficient to solubilize the at least one active ingredient and characterized in that it includes: (i) a pharmaceutically acceptable monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system; (ii) a pharmaceutically acceptable glycol present in an amount of between about 1% and 30% by weight of the solvent system, with the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and glycol being present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1 or 1:2 to 1:10; and (iii) a mixture of a C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol and water which mixture is present in an amount of between about 40% and 98% of the solvent system, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is present in an amount of about 5% to 80% of the mixture, and the water is present in an amount of about 20% to 95% of the mixture, so that, compared to formulations containing the same components but in different amounts and ratios, the present solvent system (a) inhibits crystallization of the at least one active ingredient on a skin or mucosal surface of a mammal, (b) reduces or prevents transfer of the formulation to clothing or to another being, (c) modulates biodistribution of the at least one active agent within different layers of skin, (d) facilitates absorption of the at least one active agent by a skin or a mucosal surface of a mammal, or (e) provides a combination of one or more of (a) through (d), wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Alzheimer drug selected from the group consisting of galantamine, rivastigmine, donezepil, tacrine, or memantine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

14. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the analgesic drug is an opioid analgesic, and further wherein the opioid analgesic is fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

15. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 11, wherein the at least one active agent is selegilline or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

16. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 14, wherein the at least one active agent is fentanyl or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol is monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol, the glycol is propylene glycol, present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

17. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, further comprising an agent selected from the group consisting of gelling agents; permeation enhancers, preservatives, antioxidants, buffers, humectants, sequestering agents, moisturizers, surfactants, emollients, and any combination thereof.

18. A method of delaying or inhibiting crystallization of an active agent in a transdermal or transmucosal pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 1, wherein the formulation comprises at least one active agent and a solvent system, the solvent system comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and a glycol present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1 or 1:2 to 1:10 so that, compared to formulations containing the same components but in different amounts and ratios, the present solvent system inhibits crystallization of the at least one active ingredient when applied to the skin or mucosal surface of a mammal.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in an ratio of 10:1 to 2:1.

20. The method of claim 18, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in an amount of about. 1:2 to 1:10.

21. The method of claim 18, wherein the solvent system further comprises a mixture of a C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol and water, the mixture present in an amount of between 40% and 98% of the solvent system.

22. The method of claim 18, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is present in an amount between 5% and 80% of the mixture, and the water is present in an amount between 20% and 95% of the mixture.

23. The method of claim 18, wherein the decrease or inhibition of crystallization of the active agent is sufficient to facilitate or increase absorption of the active agent across a skin or mucosal surface to which it is applied.

24. The method of claim 18, wherein the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol is selected from the group consisting of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether or mixtures thereof.

25. The method of claim 18, wherein the glycol is selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol or mixtures thereof.

26. The method of claim 18, which further comprises providing a permeation enhancer present in an amount sufficient to increase permeability of the active agent across a dermal or mucosal surface of a mammal.

27. The method of claim 18, wherein the formulation further includes lauryl alcohol or myristyl alcohol present in an amount from 0.5 to 2% by weight of the total formulation.

28. The method of claim 18, wherein the C.sub.2 to C.sub.4 alcohol is selected from the group consisting of ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, or mixtures thereof.

29. The method of claim 18, characterized in that the at least one active ingredient is selected from the group including sympathomimetics, sympatholytics, parasympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, ganglioplegics, myorelaxants, antihypertensives, diuretics, cardiotonics, anti-arythmics, anti-angina drugs, cerebral and peripheric vasodilatators, anti-migraine drugs, anti-histaminic drugs, anti-asthma drugs, thrombolytics, general anaesthetics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics, anti-convulsive drugs, hypothalamo-hypophysis regulators, hypo and hyperthyroidics, corticosteroids, glycemia regulators, hypolipidemia drugs, phosphocalcic metabolism regulators, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-acids, antisecretive gastric drugs, laxatives, gastric mucosa protectors, gastric motricity modulators, bile salts adsorbants, chelators, gall stone dissolvants, anti-anemia drugs, cutaneous diseases drugs, antiparasit drugs, antibiotics, penicillins, cephalosporins, aminosids, polypeptides, sulfamides, diaminopyrimidines, tetracyclins, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, macrolides, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, fusidic acid, 5-nitro-imidazoles, lincosamides, quinolones, anticancer drugs, anti virus drugs, and antifungus drugs.

30. The method of claim 18, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug selected from the group consisting of selegilline, trihexyphenidyl, tropatepione, bipeiden, procyclidine, benzatropine, orphenadrine, bornaprine, metixene, or levodopa, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

31. The method of claim 18, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug in combination with a decarboxylase inhibitor.

32. The method of claim 18, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Alzheimer drug selected from the group consisting of galantamine, rivastigmine, donezepil, tacrine, or memantine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

33. The method of claim 18, wherein the at least one active agent is an analgesic drug or an opioid analgesic, and further wherein the opioid analgesic is fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the active agent is fentanyl, the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol is monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol, the glycol is propylene glycol, present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

35. The method of claim 30, wherein the active agent is selegilline hydrochloride, the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

36. The pharmaceutical formulation of claim 1, wherein the active agent is selected from the group consisting of ropinirole, pramipexole, selegilline, pergolide, rivastigmine, ketoprofen, fentanyl, lidocaine, ondansetron, granisetron, clonidine, minoxidil, amlodipine, alprazolam, nicotine, and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

37. A method of delaying or inhibiting crystallization of an active agent in a transdermal or transmucosal pharmaceutical formulation according to claim 9, wherein the formulation comprises at least one active agent and a solvent system, the solvent system comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and a glycol present in a weight ratio of 10:1 to 2:1 or 1:2 to 1:10 so that, compared to formulations containing the same components but in different amounts and ratios, the present solvent system inhibits crystallization of the at least one active ingredient when applied to the skin or mucosal surface of a mammal.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug, an anti-Alzheimer drug, or an analgesic drug.

39. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug selected from the group consisting of selegilline, trihexyphenidyl, tropatepione, bipeiden, procyclidine, benzatropine, orphenadrine, bornaprine, metixene, or levodopa, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

40. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Parkinson drug in combination with a decarboxylase inhibitor.

41. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one active agent is an anti-Alzheimer drug selected from the group consisting of galantamine, rivastigmine, donezepil, tacrine, or memantine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

42. The method of claim 37, wherein the at least one active agent is an analgesic drug or an opioid analgesic, and further wherein the opioid analgesic is fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein the active agent is fentanyl, the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol is monoethyl ether of diethylene glycol, the glycol is propylene glycol, present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

44. The method of claim 39, wherein the active agent is selegilline hydrochloride, the monoalkyl ether of diethylene glycol and the glycol are present in a weight ratio of 1:2 to 1:10.

45. The method of claim 37, wherein the active agent is selected from the group consisting of ropinirole, pramipexole, selegilline, pergolide, rivastigmine, ketoprofen, fentanyl, lidocaine, ondansetron, granisetron, clonidine, minoxidil, amlodipine, alprazolam, nicotine, and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
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