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Details for Patent: 7,157,429

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Details for Patent: 7,157,429

Title:Method of regulating glucose metabolism, and reagents related thereto
Abstract: The present invention provides methods and compositions for modification and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, generally to reduce insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (such as chylomicrons, VLDL and LDL), and to regulate body fat and more generally lipid stores, and, more generally, for the improvement of metabolism disorders, especially those associated with diabetes, obesity and/or atherosclerosis. The compositions of the present invention include dipeptidylpeptidase inhibitors, which are able to inhibit the proteolysis of GLP-1 and accordingly increase the plasma half-life of that hormone. The subject inhibitors may be peptidyl, peptidomimetic (e.g. boronyl peptidomimetics), or non-peptidyl nitrogen containing heterocycles.
Inventor(s): Bachovchin; William A. (Melrose, MA), Plaut; Andrew G. (Lexington, MA), Drucker; Daniel (Toronto, CA)
Assignee: Trustees of Tufts College (Medford, MA)
Filing Date:Jul 28, 2000
Application Number:09/628,225
Claims:1. A method for modifying glucose metabolism in a glucose intolerant animal, comprising administering to the animal, in a single daily oral dosage, a composition including one or more di-, tri- or tetra-peptidyl boronate or di-, tri- or tetra-peptidomimetic boronate protease inhibitors, wherein the boronate replaces the C-terminal carboxylate moiety, which inhibit DPIV-mediated proteolysis with a Ki of less than about 10 nM in an amount sufficient to modify glucose metabolism but not sufficient to suppress the immune system of the animal.

2. A method for modifying glucose metabolism in a glucose intolerant animal, comprising administering to the animal, in a single daily oral dosage, a composition including one or more di-, tri- or tetra-peptidyl boronate or di-, tri- or tetra-peptidomimetic boronate protease inhibitors, wherein the boronate replaces the C-terminal carboxylate moiety, which inhibit the proteolysis of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) with a Ki of less than about 10 nM in an amount sufficient to modify glucose metabolism but not sufficient to suppress the immune system of the animal.

3. A method for modifying metabolism of a peptide hormone in a glucose intolerant animal, comprising administering to the animal a composition, in a single daily oral dosage, including one or more di-, tri- or tetra-peptidyl boronate or di-, tri- or tetra-peptidomimetic boronate inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPIV), wherein the boronate replaces the C-terminal carboxylate moiety and wherein the inhibitor inhibits DPIV with a Ki of less than about 10 nM, in an amount sufficient to increase the plasma half-life of the peptide hormone, which peptide hormone is selected from glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), helodermin, Peptide YY and neuropeptide Y, wherein the composition is administered in an amount sufficient to modify the metabolism of the peptide hormone but not sufficient to suppress the immune system of the animal.

4. A method for modifying glucose metabolism of a glucose intolerant animal, comprising administering to the animal a composition including a boronyl peptidomimetic inhibitor of a peptide selected from Pro-Pro, Ala-Pro, and (D)-Ala-(L)-Ala in an amount sufficient to modify glucose metabolism but not sufficient to suppress the immune system of the animal.

5. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein administering the inhibitor reduces one or more of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or hyperlipoproteinemia.

6. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor has an EC50 for modification of glucose metabolism which is at least one order of magnitude less than its EC50 for immunosuppression.

7. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor has an EC50 for inhibition of glucose tolerance in the nanomolar or less range.

8. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor has an EC50 for immunosuppression in the .mu.M or greater range.

9. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor has a Ki for DPIV inhibition of 0.5 nM or less.

10. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, or 3, wherein the inhibitor is peptidomimetic of a peptide selected from Pro-Pro, Ala-Pro, and (D)-Ala-(L)-Ala.

11. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor has a molecular weight of less than 7500 amu.

12. The method of claim 4, wherein the inhibitor is administered orally.

13. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the general Formula VII: ##STR00039## wherein, A represents a 4 8 membered heterocycle including a N and a C.alpha. carbon; Z represents C or N; W represents ##STR00040## R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group; R.sub.2 is absent or represents one or more substitutions to the ring A, each of which can independently be a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; if Z is N, R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen; if Z is C, R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen or a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.5 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, --C(X.sub.1)(X.sub.2)X.sub.3, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(O)C(O)NH.sub.2, or --C(O)C(O)OR'.sub.7; R.sub.6 represents a hydrogen, a halogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, an alkynyl, an aryl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-alkynyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-alkynyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R'.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, hydrogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 each independently represent hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --C(.dbd.)-alkyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkenyl, --C(.dbd.O)-alkynyl, or --C(.dbd.O)--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, or R.sub.8 and R.sub.9 taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; R.sub.50 represents O or S; R.sub.51 represents N.sub.3, SH, NH.sub.2, NO.sub.2 or OR'.sub.7; R.sub.52 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl, an amine, OR'.sub.7, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or R.sub.51 and R.sub.52 taken together with the phosphorous atom to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 can independently or together be OH or an alkoxyl, or taken together Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 are connected via a ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure which is hydrolyzed to hydroxy groups under physiological conditions; X.sub.1 represents a halogen; X.sub.2 and X.sub.3 each represent a hydrogen or a halogen; m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8; and n is an integer in the range of 1 to 8.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the ring A is represented by the formula ##STR00041## wherein, n is an integer of 1 or 2.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein R.sub.1 represents ##STR00042## R.sub.36 represents a small hydrophobic group and R.sub.38 is hydrogen, or, R.sub.36 and R.sub.38 together form a 4 7 membered heterocycle including the N and the C.alpha. carbon, as defined for A above; and R.sub.40 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein R.sub.2 is absent, or represents a small hydrophobic group.

17. The method of claim 13, wherein R.sub.3 is a hydrogen, or a small hydrophobic group.

18. The method of claim 13, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the general Formula (VIII): ##STR00043## wherein, R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog; and R.sub.11 and R.sub.12 each independently represent hydrogen, an alkyl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or R.sub.11 and R.sub.12 taken together with the O--B--O atoms to which they are attached complete a heterocyclic ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure.

19. The method of claim 13, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the general Formula Xa or Xb: ##STR00044## wherein, A represents a 4- to 8-membered heterocycle including a N and a C.alpha. carbon; W represents ##STR00045## R.sub.2 is absent or represents one or more substitutions to the ring A, each of which can independently be a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.3 represents a hydrogen or a halogen, a lower alkyl, a lower alkenyl, a lower alkynyl, a carbonyl, a thiocarbonyl, an amino, an acylamino, an amido, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfonamido, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--OH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--O-lower alkenyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--O--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--SH, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkyl, --(CH.sub.2).sub.m--S-lower alkenyl, or --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--S--(CH.sub.2).sub.m--R.sub.7; R.sub.7 represents, for each occurrence, a substituted or unsubstituted aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl or heterocyclyl; R.sub.32 is a small hydrophobic group; R.sub.30 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group; Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 can independently or together be OH or an alkoxyl, or taken together Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 are connected via a ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure which is hydrolyzed to hydroxy groups under physiological conditions; m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8; and n is an integer in the range of 1 to 8.

20. The method of any one of claims 1, 2, or 3, wherein the inhibitor is represented by the general Formula XI: ##STR00046## wherein, W represents a functional group which reacts with an active site residue of a targeted protease selected from ##STR00047## R.sub.1 represents a C-terminally linked amino acid residue or amino acid analog, or a C-terminally linked peptide or peptide analog, or an amino-protecting group; R.sub.61 and R.sub.62, independently, represent small hydrophobic groups; and Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 can independently or together be OH or an alkoxyl, or taken together Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 are connected via a ring having from 5 to 8 atoms in the ring structure which is hydrolyzed to hydroxy groups under physiological conditions.

21. The method of any one of claims 1 3, wherein the total dosage is less than 2000 mg.
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