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Details for Patent: 6,764,696

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Details for Patent: 6,764,696

Title: Effervescent drug delivery system for oral administration
Abstract:The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise orally administerable dosage forms that use effervescence as a penetration enhancer for drugs known, or suspected, of having poor bioavailability. Effervescence can occur in the stomach, once the tablet or other dosage form is ingested. In addition to effervescence in the stomach, or as alternative technique, by the use of appropriate coatings and other techniques, the effervescence can occur in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, including, but not limited to, the esophagus, duodenum, and colon. The site of effervescence and drug release is chosen to correspond with the segment of the gastrointestinal tract displaying maximal absorption of the formulated drug, or to gain some other therapeutic advantage.
Inventor(s): Pather; S. Indiran (Plymouth, MN), Robinson; Joseph R. (Madison, WI), Eichman; Jonathan D. (Pomona, NY), Khankari; Rajendra K. (Maple Grove, MN), Hontz; John (Plymouth, MN), Gupte; Sangeeta V. (Vernon Hills, IL)
Assignee: Cima Labs Inc. (Eden Prairie, MN)
Filing Date:Mar 18, 2003
Application Number:10/346,829
Claims:1. A dosage form for delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of a drug to a target area in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammal, said dosage form comprising: (a) a therapeutically effective amount of a drug; (b) at least one effervescent penetration enhancer present in an amount sufficient to increase the penetration of said drug across said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to permit delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of said drug; (c) at least one non-effervescent penetration enhancer; and (d) an enteric coating maintained over said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said at least one non-effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said enteric coating prevents the release of said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said at least one non-effervescent penetration enhancer until a time at which said dosage form reaches said target area in said gastrointestinal tract.

2. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is at least about two times the amount of said drug.

3. The dosage form of claim 2, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about two times the amount of said drug.

4. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is is at least about three times the amount of said drug.

5. The dosage form of claim 4, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about three times the amount of said drug.

6. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, further comprising a pH adjusting substance.

7. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, further comprising a bioadhesive that increases a contact time between said drug and a mucosa layer of said target area.

8. The dosage form of claim 7, wherein said bioadhesive is contained in a portion of said dosage form external to said drug.

9. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, further comprising at least one disintegration agent.

10. The dosage form of claim 9, wherein said at least one disintegration agent is selected from the group consisting of microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmelose sodium, crospovidone, starches and modified starches.

11. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, wherein said enteric coating comprises a material that reacts with an enzyme present in said target area of the gastrointestinal tract to release said drug, said effervescent penetration enhancer, and said noneffervescent penetration enhancer.

12. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, which is a tablet.

13. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, which is a capsule.

14. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, which is in the form of granules.

15. The dosage form of claim 1, 2 or 4, which is in the form of pellets.

16. The dosage form of claim 12, wherein said tablet contains a biconcave zone central to two outer zones; said drug, said effervescent penetration enhancer and said non-effervescent penetration enhancer being located in said biconcave zone.

17. The dosage form of claim 16, wherein said two outer zones contain a bioadhesive.

18. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple; said effervescent couple comprising an acid or equivalent thereof and a base or equivalent thereof.

19. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said base is sodium bicarbonate.

20. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about two times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

21. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about three times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

22. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said drug has poor bioavailability in said gastrointestinal tract.

23. The dosage form of claim 22, wherein said drug is selected from the group consisting of acyclovir, auranofin, bretylium, byclosporine, cytarabine, doxepin, doxorubicin, hydralazine, ketamine, labetalol, mercaptopurine, methyldopa, nalbuphine, naloxone, pentoxifylline, pyridostigmine, terbutaline, verapamil, riboflavin, and atenolol.

24. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said drug is selected from the group consisting of analgesics, anti-inflammatories, antipyretics, antibiotics, antimicrobials, laxatives, anorexics, antihistamines, antiasthmatics, antidiuretics, antiflatuents, antimigraine agents, antispasmodics, sedatives, antihyperactives, antihypertensives, tranquilizers, decongestants, beta blockers; peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and combinations thereof.

25. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said acid of said effervescent couple is selected from the group consisting of citric, tartaric, amalic, fumeric, adipic, and succinic acids, and said base of said effervescent couple is selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

26. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer includes sodium bicabonate and a weak acid, and said pH-adjusting substance includes sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate.

27. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said target area is selected from the group consisting of stomach, duodenum, intestines, and colon.
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