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Details for Patent: 6,696,412

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Details for Patent: 6,696,412

Title: High purity lipopeptides, Lipopeptide micelles and processes for preparing same
Abstract:The invention discloses highly purified daptomycin and to pharmaceutical compositions comprising this compound. The invention discloses a method of purifying daptomycin comprising the sequential steps of anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. The invention also discloses a method of purifying daptomycin by modified buffer enhanced anion exchange chromatography. The invention also discloses an improved method for producing daptomycin by fermentation of Streptomyces roseosporus. The invention also discloses high pressure liquid chromatography methods for analysis of daptomycin purity. The invention also discloses lipopeptide micelles and methods of making the micelles. The invention also discloses methods of using lipopeptide micelles for purifying lipopeptide antibiotics, such as daptomycin. The invention also discloses using lipopeptide micelles therapeutically.
Inventor(s): Kelleher; Thomas J. (Weston, MA), Lai; Jan-Ji (Westborough, MA), DeCourcey; Joseph P. (Charlestown, MA), Lynch; Paul (Arlington, MA), Zenoni; Maurizio (Milan, IT), Tagliani; Auro (Pavia, IT)
Assignee: Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Lexington, MA)
Filing Date:Nov 28, 2000
Application Number:09/735,191
Claims:1. A method to purify daptomycin comprising the steps of: a) supplying a daptomycin preparation that contains at least 2.5% of a combined amount of anhydro-daptomycin and .beta.-isomer of daptomycin; b) binding the daptomycin preparation to an anion exchange resin in the presence of a modified buffer under conditions in which daptomycin binds to the anion exchange resin in a monomeric and non-micellar state, wherein the modified buffer comprises one or more chaotropic agents; c) washing the anion exchange resin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that elute anhydro-daptomycin but retain daptomycin; and d) eluting daptomycin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that separate daptomycin from the .beta.-isomer of daptomycin; and e) obtaining purified daptomycin, or daptomycin that is substantially free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is essentially free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is substantially free of impurities 1 to 14 or daptomycin that is essentially free of impurities defined by peaks 1 to 14 shown in FIG. 12.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the anion exchange resin comprises poly(styrene-divinylbenzene).

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the modified buffer comprises urea in a molar concentration of 2 to 6 M and is pH 6.0 to 7.0.

4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of filtering and concentrating the eluted daptomycin.

5. A method to purify daptomycin comprising the steps of: a) fermenting Streptomyces roseosporus with a feed of n-decanoic acid to produce daptomycin in a fermentation broth; b) clarifying the fermentation broth to obtain a clarified solution; c) subjecting the clarified solution to anion exchange chromatography to obtain an enriched daptomycin preparation; d) subjecting the enriched daptomycin preparation to hydrophobic interaction chromatography to obtain a semi-purified daptomycin preparation; and e) subjecting the semi-purified daptomycin preparation to anion exchange chromatography in the presence of a modified buffer which comprises one or more chaotropic agents to obtain purified daptomycin, or daptomycin that is substantially free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is essentially free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is free of anhydro-daptomycin and substantially free of .beta.-isomer of daptomycin, or daptomycin that is substantially free of impurities 1 to 14 or daptomycin that is essentially free of impurities defined by peaks 1 to 14 shown in FIG. 12.

6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the feed of n-decanoic acid in step a) is regulated to achieve a residual concentration of n-decanoic acid of no more than 50 parts per million (ppm) during fermentation.

7. The method according to claim 5, wherein said clarifying in step b) comprises extracting the fermentation broth with a buffer comprising butanol.

8. The method according to claim 5, wherein the anion exchange chromatography in step c) is performed using an anion exchange resin comprising a copolymer of 2-methylacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDM).

9. The method according to claim 5, wherein the hydrophobic interaction chromatography in step d) is performed using a resin comprising a co-polymer of cross-linked divinylbenzene/styrene.

10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the hydrophobic interaction chromatography is performed at neutral pH and a solvent concentration that is reduced compared to the solvent concentration used when performing the hydrophobic interaction chromatography at acidic pH.

11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the resin is recycled by changing the pH of the resin without a solvent removal step.

12. The method according to claim 5, wherein the anion exchange chromatography using the modified buffer in step e) is performed using a resin comprising poly(styrene-divinylbenzene).

13. The method according to claim 12, wherein the anion exchange chromatography using the modified buffer in step e) comprises the steps of: i) supplying the semi-purified daptomycin preparation form step d) in a buffer appropriate for anion exchange chromatography using the modified buffer; ii) binding the daptomycin preparation to an anion exchange resin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions in which daptomycin binds to the anion exchange resin in a monomeric and non-micellar state; iii) washing the anion exchange resin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that elute anhydro-daptomycin but retain daptomycin; and iv) eluting daptomycin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that separate daptomycin from .beta.-isomer of daptomycin.

14. The method according to claim 13, wherein the washing and eluting steps comprise the use of a continuous salt gradient or a step salt gradient.

15. The method according to claim 1, wherein the washing and eluting steps comprise the use of a continuous salt gradient or a step salt gradient.

16. The method according to claim 5, wherein one or more of steps c), d) and e) is performed via continuous flow chromatography or radial flow chromatography.

17. The method according to claim 15, further comprising the step of anion exchange chromatography prior to step e).

18. The method according to claim 5, further comprising the step of filtering or concentrating daptomycin.

19. The method according to claim 5, further comprising the steps of i) providing a daptomycin solution under conditions in which daptomycin is in a monomeric and nonmicellar state; and ii) depyrogenating daptomycin using ultrafiltration or size exclusion chromatography.

20. The method according to claim 19, further comprising the step of lyophilizing daptomycin.

21. A method to purify daptomycin, comprising the steps of: a) fermenting Streptomyces roseosporus with a feed of n-decanoic acid to produce daptomycin in a fermentation broth; b) clarifying the fermentation broth to obtain a clarified solution; c) subjecting the clarified solution to anion exchange chromatography to obtain an enriched daptomycin preparation; d) subjecting the enriched daptomycin preparation to hydrophobic interaction chromatography to obtain a semi-purified daptomycin preparation; and e) subjecting the semi-purified daptomycin preparation to anion exchange chromatography to obtain purified daptomycin.

22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the feed of n-decanoic acid in step a) is regulated to achieve a residual concentration of n-decanoic acid of no more than 50 parts per million (ppm;) during fermentation.

23. The method according to claim 21, wherein said clarifying in step b) comprises filtration or centrifugation and depth filtration.

24. The method according to claim 21, wherein the anion exchange chromatography in step c) is performed using a resin comprising a copolymer of 2-methylacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDM).

25. The method according to claim 21, wherein the hydrophobic interaction chromatography in step d) is performed using a resin comprising a co-polymer of cross-linked divinylbenzene/styrene.

26. The method according to claim 25, wherein the hydrophobic interaction chromatography is performed at neutral pH and a solvent concentration that is reduced compared to the solvent concentration used when performing the hydrophobic interaction chromatography at acidic pH.

27. The method according to claim 26, wherein the resin is recycled by loading the column at an acidic pH and eluting the column at a neutral pH.

28. The method according to claim 21, wherein the anion exchange chromatography in step e) is performed using a resin comprising a copolymer of 2-methylacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDM).

29. The method according to claim 21, wherein the anion exchange chromatography in step e) is used to reduce the level of solvent from step b).

30. The method according to claim 21, wherein the method is performed via continuous flow chromatography.

31. The method according to claim 21, further comprising the step of filtering or concentrating daptomycin.

32. The method according to claim 21, further comprising the step of depyrogenating daptomycin using ultrafiltration.

33. The method according to claim 32 wherein said depyrogenating comprises the steps of i) providing a daptomycin solution under conditions in which the daptomycin is in a monomeric and nonmicellar state; ii) filtering the daptomycin solution under conditions in which the daptomycin passes through the filter but pyrogens do not pass through the filter; iii) subjecting the daptomycin solution to conditions forming a daptomycin aggregate; iv) filtering the daptomycin aggregate under conditions in which the daptomycin aggregate is retained on the filter; and v) collecting the daptomycin aggregate.

34. The method according to claim 32, further comprising the step of lyophilizing daptomycin.

35. The method according to claim 13, wherein the anion exchange chromatography using the modified buffer is performed via flow chromatography.

36. A method to purify a daptomycin-related lipopeptide comprising the steps of: a) supplying a daptomycin-related lipopeptide preparation in a monomeric and nonmicellar state, wherein the preparation is obtained by anion exchange chromatography or hydrophobic interaction chromatography; b) subjecting the daptomycin-related preparation to conditions forming micelles; c) separating the daptomycin-related lipopeptide micelles from low molecular weight material; and d) collecting the daptomycin-related lipopeptide micelles.

37. The method according to claim 36, wherein the daptomycin-related lipopeptide is daptomycin.

38. The method according to claim 36, wherein the daptomycin-related lipopeptide micelles are separated from low molecular weight material by ultrafiltration.

39. The method according to claim 38, wherein the ultrafiltration is performed using a 10,000 or 30,000 nominal molecular weight (NMW) membrane.

40. The method according to claim 36, further comprising the steps of: e) subjecting the daptomycin-related lipopeptide micelles from step d) to conditions dissociating into monomers; f) separating the daptomycin-related lipopeptide monomers from high molecular weight material; and g) collecting the daptomycin-related lipopeptide monomers.

41. The method according to claim 36, wherein repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography is used to produce the daptomycin-related lipopeptide preparation of step a).

42. A method to purify daptomycin, comprising the steps of: a) fermenting Streptomyces roseosporus with a feed of n-decanoic acid to produce daptomycin in a fermentation broth; b) clarifying the fermentation broth to obtain a clarified solution; c) subjecting the clarified solution to batch or column chromatography to obtain an enriched daptomycin preparation; d) subjecting the enriched daptomycin preparation to conditions forming micelles; e) separating the daptomycin micelles from low molecular weight material; and f) collecting the daptomycin micelles.

43. The method according to claim 42, further comprising the steps of: g) subjecting the daptomycin collected in step f) to conditions in which the daptomycin micelles dissociate into daptomycin monomers; h) separating the daptomycin monomers from high molecular weight material; and i) collecting the daptomycin monomers.

44. The method according to claim 42, wherein said batch or column chromatography is anion exchange chromatography or repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

45. The method according to claim 44, wherein said anion exchange chromatography is performed using a resin comprising a copolymer of 2-methylacrylic acid and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDM), and said repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography is performed using a resin that is a co-polymer of cross-linked divinylbenzene/styrene.

46. The method according to claim 36, wherein the conditions forming micelles comprise changing the pH from a neutral or basic pH to a pH of approximately 2.5-4.7.

47. The method according to claim 36, wherein the conditions forming micelles comprise changing the temperature from at least 15.degree. C. to 2-10.degree. C.

48. The method according to any one of claim 5, 21 or 42, wherein said clarifying in step b) comprises microfiltration or centrifugation.

49. The method according to claim 5, further comprising the steps of filtering and concentrating daptomycin.

50. The method according to claim 21, further comprising the step of filtering and concentrating daptomycin.

51. The method according to claim 36, wherein the daptomycin-related lipopeptide is A54145 or an A-21978 antibiotic in which the n-decanoyl fatty acid side chain of daptomycin is replaced by an n-octanoyl, n-nonanoyl, n-undecanoyl, n-dodecanoyl, n-tridecanoyl or n-tetradecanoyl fatty acid side chain.

52. The method according to claim 21, wherein the anion exchange chromatography in step e) comprises the steps of: i) supplying the semi-purified daptomycin preparation from step d) in a buffer appropriate for anion exchange chromatography using a modified buffer, wherein the modified buffer comprises one or more chaotropic agents; ii) binding the daptomycin preparation to an anion exchange resin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions in which daptomycin binds to the anion exchange resin in a monomeric and non-micellar state; iii) washing the anion exchange resin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that elute anhydro-daptomycin but retain daptomycin; and iv) eluting daptomycin in the presence of the modified buffer under conditions that separate daptomycin from the .beta.-isomer of daptomycin.

53. The method according to claim 52, wherein the washing and eluting steps comprise the use of a continuous salt gradient.

54. The method according to claim 52, wherein the washing and eluting steps comprise the use of a step salt gradient.

55. The method according to claim 21, further comprising the step of separating the enriched daptomycin obtained in step c) from low molecular weight material by ultrafiltration.

56. The method according to claim 55, further comprising the step of depyrogenating the daptomycin.
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