|Title:|| Electrochemically reactive cathodes for an electrotransport device|
|Abstract:||The present invention relates generally to improved cathodes (24) for use in an electrotransport device (10) for transdermally or transmucosally delivering a beneficial agent (e.g., a drug) to, or extracting a body analyte (e.g., glucose) from, the body surface of a patient. Most particularly, the present invention relates to a cathodic electrode (24) in the form of a silver halide foil which can be made, e.g., by forging particulate silver chloride. The cathode (24) does not absorb agent (e.g., drug), eliminates the need for binders, solvents and processing aids during the manufacturing process, and increases dimensional freedom of design.|
|Inventor(s):|| Scott; Erik R. (Golden Valley, MN), Kleiner; Lothar W. (Los Altos, CA) |
|Assignee:|| ALZA Corporation (Mountain View, CA) |
|Filing Date:||Jan 28, 1999|
|Claims:||1. A method of making a cathodic electrode assembly for an electrotransport device for delivering or sampling an agent through a body surface, the method comprising: forming a solid silver halide cathodic electrode from silver halide particles, said electrode comprising at least 95 vol. % silver halide, the electrode having an organic material content of less than 1 vol. % and being substantially free of any electrically conductive filler which absorbs cathodic electrolyte reservoir formulation materials; wherein said electrode has a discharge capacity of at least 500 mAhr/cm.sup.3 ; and providing a cathodic electrolyte reservoir wherein said electrolyte reservoir is positioned adjacent to and in ion transmitting relation with the electrode, the electrolyte reservoir while in use being positioned intermediate the electrode and the body surface, and in ion transmitting relation with the body surface. |
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the electrode consists essentially of silver halide.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the silver halide is selected from the group consisting of silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide and silver fluoride.
4. The method of claim 1, including contacting the electrode with a current collector, the current collector having an electrical sheet resistance that is less than one-half the sheet resistance of the silver halide electrode.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the current collector is selected from the group consisting of metal foils, an electrically conductive adhesive, a conductive ink and a conductive coating.
6. The device of claim 1, wherein the electrode further contains up to about 5 vol. % of metallic silver homogeneously dispersed in the electrode.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the electrode is in the form of a sheet having a thickness of less than 0.5 mm.
8. The method of claim 1, including forging silver chloride particles to form an electrode in the form of a foil.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein the foil is ductile.
10. The method of claim 8, wherein the foil is flexible.
11. The method of claim 8, wherein the foil is non-friable.
12. The method of claim 1, including casting molten silver halide into a sheet and calendering the sheet to form the electrode.
13. The method of claim 1, including forming the electrode by depositing a liquid slurry of silver halide particles onto a screen, drawing off the liquid to form a silver halide sheet and calendering the sheet.
14. The method of claim 1, including mixing silver halide particles in an organic binder, forming a sheet of the silver halide-loaded binder and pyrolyzing the sheet to substantially burn off the binder in order to form the foil.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the silver halide is silver chloride.