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Details for Patent: 6,479,034

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Details for Patent: 6,479,034

Title: Method of preparing gas and gaseous precursor-filled microspheres
Abstract:Methods of and apparatus for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled liposomes are described. Gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by these methods are particularly useful, for example, in ultrasonic imaging applications and in therapeutic drug delivery systems.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging, Inc. (Princeton, NJ)
Filing Date:Jul 17, 1998
Application Number:09/118,329
Claims:1. A method for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprising shaking an aqeous solution comprising a lipid, in the presence of a temperature activated gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline transition temperature of the lipid, and separating the resulting gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres for diagnositc or therapeutic use, wherein said lipid comprises at least one phosphatidylcholine, at least one phosphatidylethanolamine, and at least one phosphatidic acid, wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine; said phosphatidylethanolamine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG 5,000, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and N-succinyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; and said phosphatidic acid is dipalmatoylphosphatidic acid.

2. A method of making gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres, comprising the steps of: a) introducing an aqueous solution comprising a lipid into a vessel; b) introducing a temperature activated gaseous precursor into said vessel; c) shaking said aqueous lipid solution in the presence of said gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline transition temperature of the lipid so as to instill at least a portion of said gaseous precursor into said aqueous solution, said shaking performed with sufficient intensity and duration to produce a gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam above said aqueous solution; and d) extracting at least a portion of said gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam from said vessel; wherein said lipid comprises at least one phosphatidylcholine, at least one phosphatidylethanolamine, and at least one phosphatidic acid, wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine; said phosphatidylethanolamine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG 5,000, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and N-succinyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; and said phosphatidic acid is dipalmatoylphosphatidic acid.

3. The method as in claim 2 wherein said method is performed at the activation temperature of the precursor.

4. The method according to claim 2, further comprising the step of pressurizing said vessel.

5. The method according to claim 2, further comprising the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres.

6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprises controlling the size of said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel.

7. The method according to claim 5, wherein the size of said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel is controlled by extracting said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres through a filter.

8. The method according to claim 5, wherein the size of said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel is controlled by setting the location within said vessel from which said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres are extracted.

9. The method according to claim 5, wherein the size of said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel is controlled by adjusting the location within said vessel from which said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres are extracted during the step of extracting said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres from said vessel.

10. The method according to claim 5, wherein the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprises forcing said extracted gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres through a filter.

11. The method according to claim 5, wherein the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprises controlling the intensity of said shaking.

12. The method according to claim 2, further comprising the step of flowing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel into a syringe without further processing.

13. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of shaking at a frequency of at least about 60 shaking motions per minute.

14. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of vortexing said aqueous solution.

15. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of shaking said vessel.

16. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises shaking said aqueous solution with sufficient intensity to create said gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam in less than about 30 minutes.

17. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of controlling the duration of said shaking based on the detection of said gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam.

18. The method according to claim 17, wherein the step of controlling the duration of said shaking based on the detection of said gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam comprises shaking until the presence of a pre-determined volume of said foam has been detected.

19. A method of making gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres, comprising the steps of: a) introducing an aqueous solution comprising a lipid into a vessel; b) introducing a temperature activated gaseous precursor into said vessel; c) shaking said aqueous lipid solution below the activation temperature of said gaseous precursor and at a temperature below the gel state to lipid crystalline transition temperature of the lipid; d) filtering said aqueous lipid solution; e) shaking said aqueous lipid solution above the activation temperature of said gaseous precursor in the presence of said gaseous precursor so as to instill at least a portion of said gaseous precursor into said aqueous solution, said shaking performed with sufficient intensity and duration to produce a gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam above said aqueous solution; and f) extracting at least a portion of said gaseous precursor-filled-lipid microspheres-containing foam from said vessel; wherein said lipid comprises at least one phosphatidylcholine, at least one phosphatidylethanolamine, and at least one phosphatidic acid, wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine; said phosphatidylethanolamine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG 5,000, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and N-succinyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; and said phosphatidic acid is dipalmatoylphosphatidic acid.

20. The method according to claim 19, further comprising the step of pressurizing said vessel.

21. The method according to claim 19, further comprising the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres.

22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the step of sizing said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprises controlling the size of said gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres extracted from said vessel.

23. The method of claim 2 where said method takes place in a syringe and further comprising passing said aqueous lipid solution through filter at the end of said syringe.

24. The method of claim 19 where said aqueous lipid solution is filtered and then added to a syringe, wherein said method takes place in said syringe.

25. The method of claim 2 wherein said vessel is a barrel of a syringe, said syringe also comprising at least one filter and a needle, wherein said barrel contains said aqueous lipid solution and said gaseous precursor for said shaking step; and said step of extracting comprises sizing said gas-filled lipid microspheres by extruding said lipid microspheres from said barrel through said filter.

26. The method of claim 19 wherein said vessel is a barrel of a syringe.

27. The method of claim 26 wherein said syringe also comprises at least one filter and a needle; said step of extracting comprises sizing said gas-filled lipid microspheres by extruding said lipid microspheres from said barrel through said filter.

28. The method of claim 6 comprising drawing said lipid microspheres into a syringe, said syringe comprising a barrel, at least one filter, and a needle; whereby said filter sizes said lipid microspheres upon drawing said lipid microspheres into said barrel.

29. The method of claim 6 comprising extruding said lipid microspheres into a barrel of a syringe, said syringe also comprising at least one filter and a needle, whereby said filter sizes said lipid microspheres upon extruding said lipid microspheres from said barrel.

30. The method of claim 6 wherein said step of extracting comprises drawing said gas-filled liposome-containing foam into a syringe, said syringe comprising a barrel, at least one filter, and a needle; thereby sizing said lipid microspheres.

31. The method of claim 1 performed at a pressure above ambient pressure.

32. A method for preparing gas or gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprising shaking an aqueous solution comprising a lipid in the presence of a fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid, wherein the fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of 1-fluorobutane, hexafluoro acetone, tetrafluoroallene, boron trifluoride, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, 1-fluoro-butane, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene; hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene; 1-fluoro-butane; decafluoro butane; perfluoro 1-butene; perfluoro-1-butene; perfluoro-2-butene; 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne; perfluoro-2-butyne; octafluoro-cyclobutane; perfluoro-cyclobutane; perfluoroethane; perfluoropropane; perfluorobutane; perfluoropentane; perfluorohexane; 1,1,1-trifluorodiazoethane; hexafluoro-dimethyl amine; perfluorodimethylamine; 4-methyl, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane; 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane; 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane; 1,2-difluoro ethane; 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro ethane; 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane; 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane-2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane-chloropentafluoro ethane; dichlorotrifluoroethane; fluoro-ethane; hexafluoroethane; nitro-pentafluoro ethane; nitroso-pentafluoro ethane; perfluoro ethane; perfluoro ethylamine; 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoro ethylene; 1,2-difluoro ethylene; methanesulfonyl chloridetrifluoro; methanesulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro; methane-(pentafluorothio)trifluoro; methanebromo difluoro nitroso; methane-bromo fluoro; methane-bromo chlorofluoro; methanebromotrifluoro; methane-chloro difluoro nitro; methanechloro fluoro; methane-chloro trifluoro; methane-chloro-difluoro; methane dibromo difluoro; methane-dichloro difluoro; methanedichloro-fluoro-1 methanedifluoro; methane-difluoro-iodo; methane-fluoro; 8 methane-iodo-trifluoro; methane-nitro-trifluoro; methane-nitroso-trifluoro; methane-tetrafluoro; methane-trichlorofluoro; methane-trifluoro; methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro; pentaneperfluoro; 1-pentane-perfluoro; propane-1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoro; propane-2,2 difluoro; propane-heptafluoro-1-nitro; propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso; propane-perfluoro; propyl 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro; propylene-3-fluoro; propylene-perfluoro; propyne-3,3,3trifluoro; styrene-3-fluoro; sulfur hexafluoride; sulfur (di)-decafluoro; trifluoroacetonitrile; trifluoromethyl peroxide; trifluoromethyl sulfide; tungsten hexafluoride, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1 dichloro, fluoro ethane, hexa fluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, perfluorobutane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3diene, octafluorocyclopentene; wherein said lipid comprises at least one phosphatidylcholine, at least one phosphatidylethanolamine, and at least one phosphatidic acid, wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine; said phosphatidylethanolamine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG 5,000, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and N-succinyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; and said phosphatidic acid is dipalmatoylphosphatidic acid.

33. The method of claim 32 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, octafluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, octafluorocyclopentene, dodecafluoropentane, and octafluorocyclobutane.

34. The method of claim 33 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluorocyclobutane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

35. The method of claim 34 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, and perfluorobutane.

36. The method of claim 35 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluoropropane.

37. The method of claim 32 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon gas.

38. A method for preparing gas or gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprising shaking an aqueous solution comprising a lipid, in the presence of a fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor, at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid, and separating the resulting gas or gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres for diagnostic or therapeutic use, wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of 1-fluorobutane, hexafluoro acetone, tetrafluoroallene, boron trifluoride, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, 1-fluoro-butane, 1,2,3-trichloro, 2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene; hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene-1-fluoro-butane; decafluoro butane; perfluoro-1-butene; perfluoro-1-butene; perfluoro-2-butene; 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne; perfluoro-2-butyne; octafluoro-cyclobutane; perfluoro-cyclobutane; perfluoroethane; perfluoropropane; perfluorobutane-perfluoropentane; perfluorohexane; 1,1,1-trifluorodiazoethane; hexafluoro-dimethyl amine; perfluorodimethylamine; 4-methyl, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane; 1,1,1-trifluoroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane; 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane; 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane; 1,2-difluoro ethane; 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro ethane; 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane; 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane; 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane; chloropentafluoro ethane; dichlorotrifluoroethane; fluoro-ethane; hexafluoroethane, nitro-pentafluoro ethane, nitroso-pentafluoro ethane; perfluoro ethane; perfluoro ethylamine; 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoro ethylene; 1,2-difluoro ethylene; methanesulfonyl chloridetrifluoro; methanesulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro; methane-(pentafluoro-thio)trifluoro; methanebromo difluoro nitroso-methane-bromo fluoro; methane-bromo chlorofluoro; methanebromotrifluoro; methane-chloro difluoro nitro; methanechloro fluoro; methanechloro trifluoro; methane-chloro-difluoro; methane dibromo difluoro; methane-dichloro difluoro; methanedichloro-fluoro; methanedifluoro; methane-difluoro-iodo; methane-fluoro; methane-iodotrifluoro; methane-nitro-trifluoro; methane-nitroso-trifluoro; methane-tetrafluoro; methanetrichlorofluoro; methane-trifluoro; methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro; pentane perfluoro; pentane-perfluoro; propane-1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoro; propane-2,2 difluoro; propaneheptafluoro-1-nitro; propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso; propane-perfluoro; propyl-1,1,1,2,3,3 hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro; propylene-3-fluoro; propylene-perfluoro; propyne-3,3,3-trifluoro; styrene-3-fluoro; sulfur hexafluoride; sulfur (di)-decafluoro; trifluoroacetonitrile; trifluoromethyl peroxide; trifluoromethyl sulfide; tungsten hexafluoride, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1 dichloro, fluoro ethane, hexa fluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, perfluorobutane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3-diene, octafluorocyclopentene; wherein said lipid comprises at least one phosphatidylcholine, at least one phosphatidylethanolamine, and at least one phosphatidic acid, wherein said phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine; said phosphatidylethanolamine is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dipalnitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG 5,000, dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, and N-succinyl-dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; and said phosphatidic acid is dipalmatoylphosphatidic acid.

39. The method of claim 38 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, octafluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, octafluorocyclopentene, dodecafluoropentane, and octafluorocyclobutane.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein said fluorinated gas is selected from the group consisting ofperfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluorocyclobutane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

41. The method of claim 40 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorocyclobutane, and perfluorobutane.

42. The method of claim 41 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluoropropane.

43. The method of claim 38 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon gas.

44. The method of claim 32 wherein said microspheres are liposomes formyd from lipid monolayers.

45. The method of claim 38 wherein said microspheres are are liposomes formed from lipid monolayers.

46. The method of claim 44 wherein said lipid comprises a phospholipid.

47. The method of claim 46 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

48. The method of claim 47 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluoropentane.

49. The method of claim 47 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is sulfur hexafluoride.

50. The method of claim 47 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluorobutane.

51. The method of claim 45 wherein said lipid comprises a phospholipid.

52. The method of claim 51 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

53. The method of claim 52 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluoropentane.

54. The method of claim 52 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is sulfur hexafluoride.

55. The method of claim 52 wherein said fluorinated gas or gaseous precursor is perfluoropropane.

56. The method of claim 32 or 33 wherein said microspheres further comprise a polymer and said gas in said gas or gaseous precursor-filled microspheres further comprises air.

57. The method of claim 32 or 38 wherein said microspheres further comprise a polysaccharide and said gas in said gas or gaseous precursor-filled microspheres further comprises nitrogen.

58. The method of claim 57 wherein said polysaccharide comprises galactose and said gas in said gas-filled microspheres further comprises nitrogen.

59. The method of claim 44 wherein said lipid comprises a polymerized lipid.

60. The method of claim 45 wherein said lipid comprises a polymerized lipid.

61. The method of claim 44 wherein said microspheres further comprise polyethylene glycol.

62. The method of claim 45 wherein said microspheres further comprise polyethylene glycol.
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