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Details for Patent: 6,443,898

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Details for Patent: 6,443,898

Title: Therapeutic delivery systems
Abstract:Therapeutic delivery systems comprising gaseous precursor-filled microspheres comprising a therapeutic are described. Methods for employing such microspheres in therapeutic delivery applications are also provided. Therapeutic delivery systems comprising gaseous precursor-filled liposomes having encapsulated therein a contrast agent or drug are preferred. Methods of and apparatus for preparing such liposomes and methods for employing such liposomes in therapeutic delivery applications are also disclosed.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: Imarx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Roy, UT)
Filing Date:Jun 07, 1995
Application Number:08/485,998
Claims:1. A method for the controlled delivery of therapeutic compounds to a region of a patient comprising: (i) administering to the patient temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled microspheres comprising a therapeutic compound; (ii) monitoring the microspheres using energy to determine the liquid to gas phase transition and the presence of the microspheres in the region; and (iii) rupturing the microspheres using energy to release the therapeutic compound in the region.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein said energy is selected from the group consisting of ultrasound, microwave radiofrequency energy, magnetic induction oscillating energy, and light energy.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein said ultrasound energy comprises continuous wave ultrasound energy.

4. The method of claim 2 wherein said ultrasound energy is selected from the group consisting of amplitude and frequency modulated pulses.

5. The method of claim 2 wherein said ultrasound energy is applied as a pulse selected from the group consisting of a PRICH pulse and a CHIRP pulse.

6. The method of claim 2 wherein said light energy is selected from the group consisting of a laser and infrared energy.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein said energy is applied externally to the patient.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein said energy is applied endoscopically to the patient.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres are administered intravenously.

10. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres are comprised of a lipid selected from the group consisting of fatty acids; lysolipids; phosphatidylcholine; dioleoylphosphatidylcholine; dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine; dipentadecanoylphosphatidyl-choline; dilauroylphosphatidylcholine; dioleoylphosphatidyl-choline; dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine; distearoylphosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylethanolamine; dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine; phosphatidylserine; phosphatidylglycerol; phosphatidylinositol; sphingolipids; sphingomyelin; glycolipids; ganglioside GM1; ganglioside GM2; glucolipids; sulfatides; glycosphingolipids; phosphatidic acid; palmitic acid; stearic acid; arachidonic acid; oleic acid; lipids bearing polymers such as polyethyleneglycol, chitin, hyaluronic acid or polyvinylpyrrolidone; lipids bearing sulfonated mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides; cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate; cholesterol hemisuccinate; tocopherol hemisuccinate, lipids with ether and ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, diacetyl phosphate, stearylamine, cardiolipin, phospholipids with short chain fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyldiglyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)-octadecanoic acid; N-[12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino) octadecanoyl]-2-aminopalmitic acid; cholesteryl)4'-trimethyl-ammonio)butanoate; N-succinyldioleoylphosphatidylethanol-amine; 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol;1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-succinylglycerol; 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-succinylglycerol; 1-hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophosphoethanolamine; palmitoylhomocysteine; and/or combinations thereof; lauryltrimethylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium bromide, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, or cetylpyridinium bromide; pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres are filled with a gas selected from the group consisting of fluorine, perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1 dichloro, fluoro ethane, hexa fluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, perfluorobutane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3-diene, octafluorocyclopentene, hexafluoroacetone, isopropyl acetylene, allene, tetrafluoro allene, boron trifluoride, 1,2-butadiene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2,3-trichloro,2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl,1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, butadiene, 1-fluorobutane, 2-methyl-butane, decafluoro butane, 1-butene, 2-butene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-2-butene, 4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butene-3-yne, butyl nitrate, 1-butyne, 2-butyne, 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne, 3-methyl-1-butyne, perfluoro-2-butyne, 2-bromo-butyraldehyde, carbonyl sulfide, crotononitrile, cyclobutane, methyl-cyclobutane, octafluoro-cyclobutane, perfluoro-cyclobutene, 3-chloro-cyclopentene, cyclopropane, 1, 2-dimethyl-cyclopropane, 1,1-dimethyl-cyclopropane, 1,2-dimethyl cyclopropane, ethyl cyclopropane, methyl cyclopropane, diacetylene, 3-ethyl-3-methyl diaziridine, 1,1,1-trifluoro-diazoethane, dimethyl amine, hexafluoro-dimethyl amine, dimethylethylamine, bis-(Dimethyl phosphine)amine, 2,3-dimethyl-2-norbornane, perfluoro-dimethylamine, dimethyloxonium chloride, 1,3-dioxolane-2-one, 4-methyl, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,1,1 trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1 dichloro ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,2-difluoro ethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro ethane, 2-chloro,1,1-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoro ethane, chloroethane, chloropentafluoro ethane, dichlorotrifluoroethane, fluoro-ethane, hexafluoro-ethane, nitro-pentafluoro ethane, nitroso-pentafluoro ethane, perfluoro ethane, perfluoro ethylamine, ethyl vinyl ether, 1,1-dichloro ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoro ethylene, 1,2-difluoro ethylene, Methane, Methane-sulfonyl chloride-trifluoro, Methane-sulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro, Methane-(pentafluorothio)trifluoro, Methane-bromo difluoro nitroso, Methane-bromo fluoro, Methane-bromo chloro-fluoro, Methane-bromo-trifluoro, Methane-chloro difluoro nitro, Methane-chloro dinitro, Methane-chloro fluoro, Methane-chloro trifluoro, Methane-chloro-difluoro, Methane-dibromo difluoro, Methane-dichloro difluoro, Methane-dichloro-fluoro, Methane-difluoro, Methane-difluoro-iodo, Methane-disilano, Methane-fluoro, Methane-iodo-trifluoro, Methane-nitro-trifluoro, Methane-nitroso-trifluoro, Methane-tetrafluoro, Methane-trichlorofluoro, Methane-trifluoro, Methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro, 2-Methyl butane, Methyl ether, Methyl isopropyl ether, Methyl lactate, Methyl nitrite, Methyl sulfide, Methyl vinyl ether, Neon, Neopentane, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, 1,2,3-Nonadecane tricarboxylic acid-2-hydroxytrimethylester, 1-Nonene-3-yne, oxygen, 1,4-Pentadiene, n-Pentane, Pentane-perfluoro, 2-Pentanone-4-amino-4-methyl, 1-Pentene, 2-Pentene {cis}, 2-Pentene {trans}, 1-Pentene-3-bromo, 1-Pentene-perfluoro, Phthalic acid-tetrachloro, Piperidine-2,3,6-trimethyl, Propane, Propane-1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoro, Propane-1,2-epoxy, Propane-2,2 difluoro, Propane-2-amino, Propane-2-chloro, Propane-heptafluoro-1-nitro, Propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso, Propane-perfluoro, Propene, Propyl-1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro, Propylene-1-chloro, Propylene-chloro-{trans}, Propylene-2- chloro, Propylene-3-fluoro, Propylene-perfluoro, Propyne, Propyne-3,3,3-trifluoro, Styrene-3-fluoro, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sulfur (di)-decafluoro(S2F10), Toluene-2,4-diamino, Trifluoroacetonitrile, Trifluoromethyl peroxide, Trifluoromethyl sulfide, Tungsten hexafluoride, Vinyl acetylene, Vinyl ether, and Xenon.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres are filled with perfluorobutane.

13. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise a lipid bearing a covalently bound polymer.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein said polymer is between 400 and 200,000 molecular weight.

15. The method of claim 13 wherein said polymer is between 1,000 and 20,000 molecular weight.

16. The method of claim 13 wherein said polymer is between 2,000 and 8,000 molecular weight.

17. The method of claim 13 wherein said lipid bearing a covalently bound polymer comprises compounds of the formula XCHY--(CH.sub.2)n-O--(CH.sub.2)n-YCHX wherein X is an alcohol group, Y is OH or an alkyl group and n is 0 to 10,000.

18. The method of claim 13 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylalcohol and polypropyleneglycol.

19. The method of claim 13 wherein said polymer is polyethyleneglycol.

20. The method of claim 13 wherein said lipid comprises from about 1 mole % to about 20 mole %.

21. The method of claim 1 comprising a mixed lipid solvent system of saline, glycerol and propylene glycol.

22. The method of claim 1 comprising negatively charged lipid.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein said negatively charged lipid comprises phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol.

24. The method of claim 22 wherein said negatively charged lipid comprises phosphatidic acid.

25. The method of claim 22 wherein said negatively charged lipid comprises about 1 mole % to about 20 mole %.

26. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres are activated in vivo.

27. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres are stored suspended in an aqueous medium.

28. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres have a reflectivity of between about 2 dB and about 20 dB.

29. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres comprise gas-filled liposomes substantially devoid of water in the interior thereof and having encapsulated therein a therapeutic compound.

30. The method of claim 1 wherein the microspheres comprise gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by a gel state shaking gaseous precursor instillation method.

31. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres are administered via a nebulizer.

32. The method of claim 31 wherein said microspheres are targeted to the lung.

33. The method of claim 32 wherein said therapeutic is antisense ras/p53.

34. A method for the delivery of therapeutic compounds to a patient comprising administering to the lung of the patient liquid temperature activated gaseous precursor filled microspheres comprising a therapeutic compound.

35. The method of claim 34 wherein said microspheres are administered via a nebulizer.

36. The method of claim 35 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

37. The method of claim 36 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

38. The method of claim 37 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

39. The method of claim 34 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

41. The method of claim 40 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

42. The method of claim 34 further comprising monitoring the microspheres using ultrasound to determine the presence of the microspheres in the lung of the patient.

43. The method of claim 34 further comprising rupturing the microspheres using ultrasound to release the therapeutic compound.

44. A method for delivery of therapeutic compounds to a patient comprising administering to the lung of the patient a liquid temperature activated gaseous precursor filled emulsion comprising a therapeutic compound.

45. The method of claim 44 wherein said emulsion is administered via a nebulizer.

46. The method of claim 45 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

47. The method of claim 46 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

48. The method of claim 47 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

49. The method of claim 44 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

50. The method of claim 49 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

51. The method of claim 50 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

52. The method of claim 44 further comprising monitoring the emulsion using ultrasound to determine the presence of the emulsion in the lung of the patient.

53. The method for the delivery of therapeutic compounds to a patient comprising administering to the lung of the patient liquid temperature activated gaseous precursor filled vesicles comprising a therapeutic compound.

54. The method of claim 53 wherein the vesicles are lipid vesicles.

55. The method of claim 53 wherein the vesicles are administered via a nebulizer.

56. The method of claim 55 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

57. The method of claim 56 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

58. The method of claim 57 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

59. The method of claim 53 wherein the gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

60. The method of claim 59 wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

61. The method of claim 60 wherein the perfluorocarbon is perfluoropentane.

62. The method of claim 53 further comprising monitoring the vesicles using ultrasound to determine the presence of the vesicles in the lung of the patient.

63. The method of claim 53 further comprising rupturing the vesicles using ultrasound to release the therapeutic compound.

64. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise a lipid-containing monolayer.

65. The method of claim 64 wherein said microspheres comprise a polymerized lipid.

66. The method of claim 64 wherein said microspheres further comprise polyethylene glycol.

67. A method for the controlled delivery of a drug to an internal bodily region of a patient comprising: (a) administering to the patient a drug delivery system comprising a gas-filled lipid containing microsphere prepared by a vacuum drying gas instillation method having encapsulated therein a drug, wherein said gas is provided by a gaseous precursor; (b) monitoring the microsphere using ultrasound to determine the phase transition of the gaseous precursor from a liquid to a gas and to determine the presence of said microsphere in the region; and (c) rupturing the microsphere using ultrasound to release the drug in the region.

68. The method according to claim 67 wherein the drug is delivered in the area of the patient's left heart.

69. The method of claim 68 wherein said drug delivery system is activated by energy delivered to the target site.

70. The method of claim 67 wherein said gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

71. The method of claim 67 wherein said gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, and perfluorohexane.

72. The method of claim 71 wherein said gaseous precursor is a combination of nitrogen and perfluorohexane.

73. The method of claim 71 wherein said gaseous precursor is a combination of nitrogen and perfluoropropane.

74. The method of claim 67 wherein said microspheres have been rehydrated from lyophilized microspheres.

75. A method of administering drugs to ischemic and diseased tissues comprising delivering to the target site of a patient a drug delivery system comprising gas-filled microspheres having encapsulated therein one or more drugs, wherein said gas is provided by a temperature activated gaseous precursor having an activation temperature of about body temperature.

76. The method of claim 75 wherein said microspheres comprise a protein.

77. The method of claim 76 wherein said gas or gaseous precursor is a prefluorocarbon.

78. The method of claim 77 wherein said perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, and perfluorohexane.

79. The method of claim 78 wherein said perfluorocarbon is perfluoropropane.

80. The method of claim 75 wherein said microspheres have been rehydrated from lyophilized microspheres.

81. The method of claim 75 wherein said microspheres comprise a lipid-containing monolayer.

82. The method of claim 81 wherein said microspheres comprise a polymerized lipid.

83. The method of claim 81 wherein said microspheres further comprise polyethylene glycol.

84. The method of claim 67 wherein said liposomes comprise a monolayer.

85. The method of claim 84 wherein said liposomes comprise a polymerized lipid.

86. The method of claim 84 wherein said liposomes comprise polyethylene glycol.

87. The method of claim 64, 84, or 81 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid.

88. The method of claim 87 wherein said gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane and sulfur hexafluoride.

89. The method of claim 64, 84, or 81 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is perfluoropentane.

90. The method of claim 64, 84, or 81 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is sulfur hexafluoride.

91. The method of claim 64, 84, or 81 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is perfluoropropane.

92. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise a protein.

93. The method of claim 92 wherein said gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.

94. The method of claim 93 wherein said perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, and perfluorohexane.

95. The method of claim 94 wherein said perfluorocarbon is perfluoropropane.

96. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres have been rehydrated from lyophilized microspheres.
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