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Details for Patent: 6,350,470

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Details for Patent: 6,350,470

Title: Effervescent drug delivery system for oral administration
Abstract:The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise orally administerable dosage forms that use effervescence as a penetration enhancer for drugs known, or suspected, of having poor bioavailability. Effervescence can occur in the stomach, once the tablet or other dosage form is ingested. In addition to effervescence in the stomach, or as alternative technique, by the use of appropriate coatings and other techniques, the effervescence can occur in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, including, but not limited to, the esophagus, duodenum, and colon. The site of effervescence and drug release is chosen to correspond with the segment of the gastrointestinal tract displaying maximal absorption of the formulated drug, or to gain some other therapeutic advantage.
Inventor(s): Pather; S. Indiran (Plymouth, MN), Robinson; Joseph R. (Madison, WI), Eichman; Jonathan D. (Ann Arbor, MI), Khankari; Rajendra K. (Maple Grove, MN), Hontz; John (Plymouth, MN), Gupte; Sangeeta V. (Maple Grove, MN)
Assignee: Cima Labs Inc. (Minneapolis, MN)
Filing Date:Apr 29, 1999
Application Number:09/302,105
Claims:1. A dosage form for delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of a drug to a target area in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammal; comprising:

(a) a therapeutically effective amount of a drug;

(b) at least one effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is present in an amount sufficient to increase the penetration of said drug across said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to permit delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of said drug;

(c) a pH adjusting substance comprising an acid or a base; and

(d) an enteric coating maintained over said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said pH adjusting substance; wherein said enteric coating prevents the release of said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said pH adjusting substance until a time at which said dosage form reaches said target area in said gastrointestinal tract.

2. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about two times the amount of said drug.

3. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about three times the amount of said drug.

4. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3, further comprising at least one noneffervescent penetration enhancer.

5. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3 further comprising at least one disintegration agent, wherein said disintegration agent causes the rapid dispersion of said drug to said target area of said gastrointestinal tract.

6. The dosage form of any of claims 1-3, wherein said enteric coating comprises a material that reacts with an enzyme present in said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to release said drug, said effervescent penetration enhancer and said pH adjusting substance.

7. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3, wherein said dosage form is a tablet.

8. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3, wherein said dosage form is a capsule.

9. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3, wherein said dosage form is in the form of granules.

10. The dosage form of any one of claims 1-3, wherein said dosage from is in the form of pellets.

11. The dosage form of claim 7, wherein said tablet contains a biconcave zone central to two outer zones; wherein said drug, said effervescent penetration enhancer and said pH adjusting substance are located in said biconcave zone.

12. The dosage form of claim 11, wherein a bioadhesive is contained in said two outer zones.

13. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple; said effervescent couple comprising an acid or equivalent thereof and a base or equivalent thereof.

14. The dosage form of claim 13, wherein said base of said effervescent couple is sodium bicarbonate.

15. The dosage form of claim 13, wherein, in said effervescent couple, said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about two times the amount of said drug; and said acid of said effervescent couple is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base of said effervescent couple.

16. The dosage form of claim 13, wherein, in said effervescent couple, said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about two times the amount of said drug; and said acid of said effervescent couple is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base of said effervescent couple.

17. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said drug is a drug that displays poor bioavailability in said gastrointestinal tract.

18. A dosage form for delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of a drug to a target area in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammal; comprising:

(a) a therapeutically effective amount of a drug;

(b) at least one effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is present in an amount sufficient to increase the penetration of said drug across said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to permit delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of said drug;

(c) a bioadhesive; wherein said bioadhesive increases contact time between said drug and a mucosa layer of said target area; and

(d) an enteric coating maintained over said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said bioadhesive; wherein said enteric coating prevents the release of said drug and said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and the exposure of said bioadhesive until a time at which said dosage form reaches said target area in said gastrointestinal tract.

19. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about two times the amount of said drug.

20. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about three times the amount of said drug.

21. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, further comprising a pH adjusting substance.

22. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said bioadhesive is contained in a portion of said dosage form external to said drug.

23. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, further comprising at least one noneffervescent penetration enhancer.

24. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, further comprising at least one disintegration agent, wherein said disintegration agent causes the rapid dispersion of said drug to said target area of said gastrointestinal tract.

25. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, wherein said enteric coating comprises a material that reacts with an enzyme present in said target area of the gastrointestinal tract to release said drug and said effervescent penetration enhancer.

26. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, wherein said dosage form is a tablet.

27. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, wherein said dosage form is a capsule.

28. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, wherein said dosage form is in the form of granules.

29. The dosage form of any one of claims 18-20, wherein said dosage form is in the form of pellets.

30. The dosage form of claim 26, wherein said tablet contains a biconcave zone central to two outer zones; wherein said drug and said effervescent penetration enhancer are located in said biconcave zone.

31. The dosage form of claim 30, wherein said bioadhesive is contained in said two outer zones.

32. The dosage form of claim 18, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple; said effervescent couple comprising an acid or equivalent thereof and a base or equivalent thereof.

33. The dosage form of claim 32, wherein said base is sodium bicarbonate.

34. The dosage form of claim 32, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about two times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

35. The dosage form of claim 32, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about three times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

36. The dosage form of claim 32, wherein said drug is a drug that displays poor bioavailability in said gastrointestinal tract.

37. A dosage form for delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of a drug to a target area in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammal; comprising:

a therapeutically effective amount of a drug;

at least one effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is present in an amount sufficient to increase the penetration of said drug across said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to permit delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of said drug;

at least one noneffervescent penetration enhancer; and

an enteric coating maintained over at least one of said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer and said at least one noneffervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said enteric coating prevents the release of said drug, said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer or said at least one noneffervescent penetration enhancer until a time at which said dosage form reaches said target area in said gastrointestinal tract;

wherein said dosage form is in the form of a capsule, granules, or pellets.

38. The dosage form of claim 37, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about two times the amount of said drug.

39. The dosage form of claim 37, wherein said amount of said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is equal to about three times the amount of said drug.

40. The dosage form of any one of claims 37-39, further comprising a pH adjusting substance.

41. The dosage form of any one of claims 37-39, further comprising a bioadhesive, wherein said bioadhesive increases contact time between said drug and a mucosa layer of said target area.

42. The dosage form of claim 41, wherein said bioadhesive is contained in a portion of said dosage form external to said drug.

43. The dosage form of any one of claims 37-39, further comprising at least one disintegration agent, wherein said disintegration agent causes the rapid dispersion of said drug to said target area of said gastrointestinal tract.

44. The dosage form of any one of claims 37-39, wherein said enteric coating comprises a material that reacts with an enzyme present in said target area of the gastrointestinal tract to release said drug, said effervescent penetration enhancer, and said noneffervescent penetration enhancer.

45. The dosage form of claim 37, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple; said effervescent couple comprising an acid or equivalent thereof and a base or equivalent thereof.

46. The dosage form of claim 45, wherein said base is sodium bicarbonate.

47. The dosage form of claim 45, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about two times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

48. The dosage form of claim 45, wherein said base or equivalent thereof is present in an amount equal to about three times the amount of said drug; and said acid is present in an amount approximately equimolar to said base.

49. The dosage form of claim 37, wherein said drug is a drug that displays poor bioavailability in said gastrointestinal tract.

50. A tablet for delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of a drug to a target area in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammal; comprising:

(a) a therapeutically effective amount of a drug;

(b) at least one effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer is present in an amount sufficient to increase the penetration of said drug across said target area of said gastrointestinal tract to permit delivery of a therapeutically effective amount of said drug;

(c) an enteric coating maintained over said drug; and said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer; wherein said enteric coating prevents the release of said drug and said at least one effervescent penetration enhancer until a time at which said tablet reaches said target area in said gastrointestinal tract;

said tablet containing a biconcave zone central to two outer zones; wherein said drug and said effervescent penetration enhancer are located in said biconcave zone.

51. The tablet of claim 50, wherein said two outer zones contain a bioadhesive.

52. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said acid of said effervescent couple is selected from the group consisting of citric, tartaric, amalic, fumeric, adipic, and succinic acids, and said base of said effervescent couple is selected from the group consisting of sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.

53. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said acid is selected from the group consisting of citric, tartaric, amalic, fumeric, adipic, and succinic acids, and said base is selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

54. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer includes sodium bicarbonate and a weak acid, and said pH-adjusting substance includes sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate.

55. The tablet of claim 50, further comprising a non-effervescent penetration enhancer located in said biconcave zone.

56. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said acid of said pH-adjusting substance is the same as said acid of said effervescent couple.

57. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said base of said pH-adjusting substance is the same as said base of said effervescent couple.

58. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said acid of said pH-adjusting substance is different from said acid of said effervescent couple.

59. The dosage form of claim 1, wherein said effervescent penetration enhancer comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable effervescent couple comprising an acid and a base, wherein said base of said pH-adjusting substance is different from said base of said effervescent couple.
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