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Details for Patent: 6,107,420

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Details for Patent: 6,107,420

Title: Thermally initiated polymerization of olefins using Ruthenium or osmium vinylidene complexes
Abstract:The present invention generally relates to the use of certain ruthenium and osmium complexes that are substantially inactive at a first temperature (preferably about room temperature) but become progressively more active at a higher second temperature. This difference in reactivities allows the reaction mixture to be formed and manipulated at the first temperature until polymerization is desired. When appropriate, the reaction mixture is heated to a suitable temperature (preferably greater than 50.degree. C.) to activate the catalyst and to initiate polymerization. Because both the initiation and the rate of polymerization may be controlled with temperature, the inventive methods are especially suitable for ring opening metathesis polymerization ("ROMP") reactions and for molding polymer articles that require extended pot-lives.
Inventor(s): Grubbs; Robert H. (S. Pasadena, CA), Wilhelm; Thomas E. (Pasadena, CA)
Assignee: California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, CA)
Filing Date:Jul 26, 1999
Application Number:09/358,654
Claims:1. A method for controlling the initiation of metathesis polymerization comprising:

contacting a metathesis catalyst with an olefin in a reaction mixture at a first temperature and

heating the reaction mixture to a second temperature

wherein the metathesis catalyst is of the formula: ##STR7## wherein: M is ruthenium or osmium;

X and X.sup.1 are each independently any anionic ligand;

L and L.sup.1 are each independently any neutral electron donor ligand; and,

R and R.sup.1 are each independently hydrogen or substituent selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkenyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkynyl, aryl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 carboxylate, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkoxy, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkenyloxy, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkynyloxy, aryloxy, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkoxycarbonyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylthio, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylsulfonyl and C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylsulfinyl, the substituent optionally substituted with one or moieties selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkoxy, and aryl.

2. The method as in claim 1 wherein the first temperature is about room temperature.

3. The method as in claim 2 wherein the second temperature is at least about 50.degree. C.

4. The method as in claim 3 wherein the catalyst includes one or more functional groups selected from the group consisting of alcohol, sulfonic acid, phosphine, thiol, thioether, ketone, aldehyde, ester, ether, amine, imine, amide, imide, imido, nitro, carboxylic acid, disulfide, carbonate, isocyanate, carbodiimide, carboalkoxy, carbamate, acetal, ketal, boronate, cyano, cyanohydrin, hydrazine, oxime, hydrazide, enamine, sulfone, sulfide, sulfenyl, and halogen.

5. The method as in claim 3 wherein:

M is ruthenium;

R is hydrogen;

R.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.10 alkenyl, and aryl;

X and X.sup.1 are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halide, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkyl, aryl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkoxide, aryloxide, C.sub.3 -C.sub.20 alkyldiketonate, aryldiketonate, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 carboxylate, arylsulfonate, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylsul fonate, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylthio, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylsulfonyl, and C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkylsulfinyl; and

L and L.sup.1 are each independently selected from the group consisting of phosphine, sulfonated phosphine, phosphite, phosphinite, phosphonite, arsine, stibine, ether, amine, amide, imine, sulfoxide, carboxyl, nitrosyl, pyridine, thioether and heterocyclic carbene.

6. The method as in claim 5 wherein:

R.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, methyl, isopropyl, and tertbutyl;

X and X.sup.1 are each independently selected from the group consisting of halide, CF.sub.3 CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3 CO.sub.2, CFH.sub.2 CO.sub.2, (CH.sub.3).sub.3 CO, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 (CH.sub.3)CO, (CF.sub.3)(CH.sub.3).sub.2 CO, PhO, MeO, EtO, tosylate, mesylate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate; and

L and L.sup.1 are each independently either (i) a phosphine of the formnula PR.sup.3 R.sup.4 R.sup.5, wherein R.sup.3, R.sup.4, and R.sup.5 are each independently aryl or C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, particularly primary alkyl, secondary alkyl or cycloalkyl or (ii) a heterocyclic carbene of the formula: ##STR8## wherein R.sup.6 and R.sup.7 are each independently selected from the group consisting C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkenyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, each optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkoxy, and aryl.

7. The method as in claim 6 wherein:

X and X.sup.1 are each a halide and

L and L.sup.1 are selected from a group consisting of

--P(cyclohexyl).sub.3, --P(cyclopentyl).sub.3, --P(isopropyl)3, --P(phenyl).sub.3, and IMes wherein IMes is 1,3-dimesityl imidazole.

8. The method as in claim 7 wherein the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR9## wherein PCy.sub.3 is selected from the group consisting of --P(cyclohexyl).sub.3, --P(cyclopentyl).sub.3, --P(isopropyl).sub.3, and --P(phenyl).sub.3.

9. A method for controlling the initiation of ROMP polymerization comprising:

contacting a metathesis catalyst with a cyclic olefin in a reaction mixture at a first temperature and

heating the reaction mixture to a second temperature

wherein the metathesis catalyst is of the formula: ##STR10## wherein: M is ruthenium;

R is hydrogen;

R.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.10 alkenyl, and aryl;

X and X.sup.1 are each independently selected from the group consisting of halide, CF.sub.3 CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3 CO.sub.2, CFH.sub.2 CO.sub.2, (CH.sub.3).sub.3 CO, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 (CH.sub.3)CO, (CF.sub.3)(CH.sub.3).sub.2 CO, PhO, MeO, EtO, tosylate, mesylate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate; and

L and L.sup.1 are each independently either (i) a phosphine of the formula PR.sup.3 R.sup.4 R.sup.5, wherein R.sup.3, R.sup.4, and R.sup.5 are each independently aryl or C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, particularly primary alkyl, secondary alkyl or cycloalkyl or (ii) a heterocyclic carbene of the formula: ##STR11## wherein R.sup.6 and R.sup.7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkenyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.20 alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, each optionally substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkoxy, and aryl.

10. The method as in claim 9 wherein:

R.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, methyl, isopropyl, and tertbutyl;

X and X.sup.1 are each chloride; and

L and L.sup.1 are each independently selected from a group consisting of --P(cyclohexyl).sub.3, --P(cyclopentyl).sub.3, --P(isopropyl).sub.3, --P(phenyl).sub.3, and IMes wherein IMes is 1,3-dimesityl imidazole.

11. The method as in claim 9 wherein the cyclic olefin is selected from the group consisting of norbornene, norbornadiene, dicyclopentadiene, cyclopentene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclooctadiene, cyclododecene, 7-oxanorbornene, 7-oxanorbornadiene, and derivatives therefrom.

12. The method as in claim 9 wherein the first temperature is about room temperature.

13. The method as in claim 9 wherein the second temperature is at least about 50.degree. C.

14. The method as in claim 9 wherein the second temperature is at least about 75.degree. C.

15. The method as in claim 11 wherein the reaction mixture includes one or more formulation auxiliaries.

16. The method as in claim 12 wherein the heating occurs in bursts rather than being continuous.

17. A method of making molded parts comprising:

adding a metathesis catalyst and dicyclopentadiene to a mold at a first temperature and

heating the mold to a second temperature

wherein the metathesis catalyst is of the formula: ##STR12## wherein: M is ruthenium;

R is hydrogen;

R.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.2 -C.sub.10 alkenyl, and aryl;

X and X.sup.1 are halide; and

L and L.sup.1 are each independently selected from a group consisting of --P(cyclohexyl).sub.3, --P(cyclopentyl).sub.3, --P(isopropyl).sub.3, --P(phenyl).sub.3, and IMes wherein IMes is 1,3-dimesityl imidazole.

18. The method as in claim 17 wherein the catalyst is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR13## wherein PCy.sub.3 is selected from the group consisting of --P(cyclohexyl).sub.3, --P(cyclopentyl).sub.3, --P(isopropyl).sub.3, and --P(phenyl).sub.3.

19. The method as in claim 17 wherein the first temperature is about room temperature and the second temperature is at least about 50.degree. C.

20. The method as in claim 17 wherein the first temperature is about room temperature and the second temperature is between about 70.degree. C. and about 80.degree. C.

21. The method as in claim 17 wherein the reaction mixture includes one or more formulation auxiliaries selected from the group consisting of antistatics, antioxidants, light stabilizers, plasticizers, dyes, pigments, fillers, reinforcing fibers, lubricants, adhesion promoters, viscosity-increasing agents and demolding enhancers.

22. The method as in claim 17 wherein the heating occurs in bursts rather than being continuous.
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