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|Title:||Targeted gas and gaseous precursor-filled liposomes|
|Abstract:||Methods of and apparatus for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled liposomes are described. Gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by these methods are particularly useful, for example, in ultrasonic imaging applications and in therapeutic drug delivery systems.|
|Inventor(s):||Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)|
|Assignee:||ImaRx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Tucson, AZ)|
|Filing Date:||Oct 02, 1997|
|Claims:||1. A microsphere comprising a lipid, a targeting moiety and at least one of a first gas or a gaseous precursor, wherein said microsphere is a liposome and encapsulates at least a portion of said first gas, said gaseous precursor, or both, to provide at least about 75% volume of gas in the interior of said microsphere due to the presence of said first gas, or upon activation of said gaseous precursor to form a second gas, or both, and wherein said liposome is prepared by a method which comprises shaking an aqueous solution comprising said lipid in the presence of said first gas or said gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of said lipid and wherein said targeting moiety is selected from the group consisting of antibodies, peptides, glycopeptides, glycolipids, and combinations thereof. |
2. The microsphere of claim 1, wherein the gas or gaseous precursor is a fluorine-containing compound.
3. The microsphere of claim 2, wherein the gas or gas precursor is at least one fluorine-containing compound selected from the group consisting of fluorine, perfluoromethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1-dichlorofluoroethane, hexafluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3-diene, octafluorocyclopentene, hexafluoroacetone, tetrafluoro allene, boron trifluoride, 1,2,3-trichloro-2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, 1-fluorobutane, decafluorobutane, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-2-butene, 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne, perfluoro-2-butyne, octafluorocyclobutane, perfluorocyclobutene, 1,1,1-trifluorodiazoethane, hexafluorodimethyl amine, perfluorodimethylamine, 4-methyl-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,2-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro-ethane, 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoroethane, chloropentafluoroethane, dichlorotrifluoroethane, fluoroethane, hexafluoroethane, nitropentafluoroethane, nitrosopentafluoroethane, perfluoroethylamine, 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene, 1,2-difluoroethylene, methane-sulfonyl chloride-trifluoro, methane-sulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro, methane-(pentafluorothio)trifluoro, methane-bromo difluoro nitroso, methane-bromo fluoro, methane-bromo chloro-fluoro, methane-bromo-trifluoro, methane-chloro difluoro nitro, methane-chloro fluoro, methane-chloro trifluoro, methane-chloro-difluoro, methane-dibromo difluoro, methane-dichloro difluoro, methane-dichloro-fluoro, methane-difluoro, methane-difluoro-iodo, methane-disilano, methane-fluoro, methane-iodo-trifluoro, methane-nitro-trifluoro, methane-nitroso-trifluoro, methane-tetrafluoro, methane-trichlorofluoro, methane-trifluoro, methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro, perfluoro-1-pentene, propane-1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoro, 2,2-difluoropropane, propane-heptafluoro-1-nitro, propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso, propyl-1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro, 3-fluoropropylene, perfluoropropylene, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyne, 3-fluorostyrene, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfur (di)-decafluoro, trifluoroacetonitrile, trifluoromethyl peroxide, trifluoromethyl sulfide and tungsten hexafluoride.
4. The microsphere of claim 2, wherein the gas or gaseous precursor is at least one fluorine-containing compound selected from the group consisting of a perfluorocarbon, a fluorohydrocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride.
5. The microsphere of claim 4, wherein the gas or gaseous precursor is a perfluorocarbon.
6. The microsphere of claim 5, wherein the perfluorocarbon is selected from the group consisting of perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.
7. The microsphere of claim 1, wherein the targeting moiety is selected from the group consisting of antibodies, peptides, glycopeptides, and combinations thereof.
8. The microsphere of claim 1, wherein the lipid comprises at least one lipid selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, lysolipids, phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine, dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, sphingolipids, sphingomyelin, glycolipids, ganglioside GM1, ganglioside GM2, glucolipids, sulfatides, glycosphingolipids, phosphatidic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, lipids covalently bonded to polymers, lipids bearing sulfonated monosaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated disaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated oligosaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated polysaccharides, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, cholesterol hemisuccinate, tocopherol hemisuccinate, lipids with ether-linked fatty acids, lipids with ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, diacetyl phosphate, stearylamine, cardiolipin, phospholipids with short chain fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyl-diglyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethyl-aminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)octadecanoic acid, N-(12-(((7'-diethylamino-coumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)octadeca noyl)-2-aminopalmitic acid, cholesteryl(4'-trimethylammonio)butanoate, N-succinyldioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-succinylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-succinylglycerol, 1-hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophosphoethanolamine, palmitoylhomocysteine, lauryltrimethylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium bromide, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine.
9. The microsphere of claim 8, wherein, in the lipids covalently bonded to polymers, the polymer is polyethylene glycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol or polypropylene glycol.
10. The microsphere of claim 8, wherein, in the lipids covalently bonded to polymers, the polymer is between about 400 and about 200,000 molecular weight.
11. The microsphere of claim 10, wherein, in the lipids covalently bonded to polymers, the polymer is between about 1,000 and about 20,000 molecular weight.
12. The microsphere of claim 11, wherein, in the lipids covalently bonded to polymers, the polymer is between about 2,000 and about 8,000 molecular weight.
13. The microsphere of claim 8, wherein said lipids covalently bonded to polymers comprise compounds of the formula XCHY--(CH.sub.2).sub.n --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n --YCHX, wherein X is an alcohol group, Y is OH or an alkyl group and n is 0 to 10,000.
14. The microsphere of claim 9, wherein the polymer is polyethylene glycol.
15. The microsphere of claim 1, wherein the lipid comprises dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine covalently bonded to polyethylene glycol.
16. The microsphere of claim 1, wherein the volume of gas in the interior thereof is at least about 90%.
17. The microsphere of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises said first gas.
18. The microsphere of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises said gaseous percursor.
19. The microsphere of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises said first gas and said gaseous percursor.
20. A microsphere according to claim 1 wherein said aqueous solution is stored at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid after shaking.
21. a microsphere according to claim 1 wherein after shaking said aqueous solution, said aqueous solution is frozen.
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