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Details for Patent: 5,935,553

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Details for Patent: 5,935,553

Title: Methods of preparing gas-filled liposomes
Abstract:Methods of and apparatus for preparing gas-filled liposomes are described. Gas-filled liposomes prepared by these methods are particularly useful, for example, in ultrasonic imaging applications and in therapeutic drug delivery systems.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: ImaRx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Tucson, AZ)
Filing Date:Nov 25, 1996
Application Number:08/758,179
Claims:1. A method of making gas-filled liposome microspheres, comprising the steps of:

a) introducing an aqueous solution comprising a lipid into a vessel;

b) introducing a gas into said vessel;

c) shaking said aqueous lipid solution in the presence of said gas so as to instill at least a portion of said gas into said aqueous solution, said shaking performed with sufficient intensity and duration to produce a gas-filled-liposome-containing foam above said aqueous solution; and

d) extracting at least a portion of said gas-filled-liposome-containing foam from said vessel.

2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of cooling said aqueous solution.

3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of cooling said aqueous solution comprises cooling said aqueous solution below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of said lipid in said aqueous solution.

4. The method according to claim 2, wherein the step of cooling said aqueous solution comprises cooling said aqueous solution below the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of said lipid in said aqueous solution.

5. The method according to claim 4, further comprising the step of pressurizing said vessel.

6. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of pressurizing said vessel.

7. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of sizing said gas-filled liposomes.

8. The method according to claim 7, wherein the size of said gas-filled liposomes extracted from said vessel is controlled by extracting said gas-filled liposomes through a filter.

9. The method according to claim 7, wherein the size of said gas-filled liposomes extracted from said vessel is controlled by setting the location within said vessel from which said gas-filled liposomes are extracted.

10. The method according to claim 7, wherein the size of said gas-filled liposomes extracted from said vessel is controlled by adjusting the location within said vessel from which said gas-filled liposomes are extracted during the step of extracting said gas-filled liposomes from said vessel.

11. The method according to claim 7, wherein the step of sizing said gas-filled liposomes comprises forcing said extracted gas-filled liposomes through a filter.

12. The method of claim 11 comprising drawing said liposomes into a syringe, said syringe comprising a barrel, at least one filter, and a needle; whereby said filter sizes said liposomes upon drawing said liposomes into said barrel.

13. The method according to claim 7, wherein the step of sizing said gas-filled liposomes comprises controlling the intensity of said shaking.

14. The method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of flowing said gas-filled liposomes extracted from said vessel into a syringe without further processing.

15. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of shaking at a frequency of at least about 60 shaking motions per minute.

16. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of vortexing said aqueous solution.

17. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of shaking said vessel.

18. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises shaking said aqueous solution with sufficient intensity to create said gas-filled-liposomes-containing foam in less than about 30 minutes.

19. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of shaking said aqueous solution comprises the step of controlling the duration of said shaking based on the detection of said gas-filled-liposome-containing foam.

20. The method according to claim 19, wherein the step of controlling the duration of said shaking based on the detection of said gas-filled-liposome-containing foam comprises shaking until the presence of a pre-determined volume of said foam has been detected.

21. The method of claim 1 wherein said vessel is a barrel of a syringe, said syringe also comprising at least one filter and a needle; said step of extracting comprises sizing said gas-filled liposomes by extruding said liposomes from said barrel through said filter.

22. The method of claim 1 wherein said vessel is a barrel of a syringe.

23. The method of claim 22 wherein said syringe also comprises at least one filter and a needle; said step of extracting comprises sizing said gas-filled liposomes by extruding said liposomes from said barrel through said filter.

24. The method of claim 11 comprising extruding said liposomes into a barrel of a syringe, said syringe also comprising at least one filter and a needle; whereby said filter sizes said liposomes upon extruding said liposomes from said barrel.

25. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of extracting comprises drawing said gas-filled liposome-containing foam into a syringe, said syringe comprising a barrel, at least one filter, and a needle; thereby sizing said liposomes.

26. The method of claim 19 performed at a pressure above ambient pressure.

27. The method of claim 1 wherein said liposomes have one lipid layer.

28. The method of claim 27 wherein said lipid is a phospholipid.

29. A method according to claim 1 wherein said lipid is a polymerized lipid.

30. A method according to claim 1 wherein said aqueous solution further comprises polyethylene glycol.

31. A method as in claim 1 further comprising the step of lyophilizing said microspheres.

32. A method as in claim 31 further comprising the step of hydrating said microspheres.

33. A gas-filled microsphere prepared by a gel state shaking gas instillation method comprising a polymer, a polysaccharide, fatty acids, lysolipids, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidyl-choline, dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidyl-choline, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylqlycerol, phosphatidylinositol, sphingolipids, glycolipids, glucolipids, sulfatides, glycosphingolipids, phosphatidic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, lipids bearing polymers, lipids bearing sulfonated mono-, di-, oligo- or polysaccharides, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, cholesterol hemisuccinate, tocopherol hemisuccinate, lipids with ether-linked fatty acids, lipids with ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, diacetyl phosphate, stearylamine, cardiolipin, phospholipids with short chain fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyldiqlyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)-octadecanoic acid, N-[12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methyl-amino) octadecanoyl]-2-aminopalmitic acid, cholesteryl)4'-trimethyl-ammonio)butanoate, N-succinyldioleoylphosphatidylethanol-amine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-succinylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-succinylglycerol,1-hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophosphoet hanolamine, or palmitoylhomocysteine, or combinations thereof.

34. The microsphere of claim 33 wherein said microsphere comprises a polymer.

35. The microsphere of claim 34 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, chitin, hyaluronic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polylysine, polyarginine, alginic acid, dextran, and starch.

36. The microsphere of claim 34 wherein said gas is air.

37. The microsphere of claim 33 wherein said microsphere comprises a polysaccharide.

38. The microsphere of claim 37 wherein said polysaccharide comprises galactose.

39. The microsphere of claim 37 wherein said gas is nitrogen.

40. A microsphere of claim 33 comprising a lipid selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine, and a phosphatidic acid, and said liposome further comprising polyethylene glycol.

41. A microsphere of claim 33 wherein said microsphere has one lipid layer.

42. A gas filled microsphere according to claim 33 which comprises a polymerized lipid.

43. A gas filled microsphere according to claim 33 further comprising polyethylene glycol.

44. A gas-filled microsphere as in claim 33 wherein said gas-filled microsphere is lyophilized.

45. A gas-filled microsphere as in claim 44 wherein said gas-filled microsphere is rehydrated.

46. A microsphere prepared by a gel state shaking gas instillation method wherein the microsphere comprises a phospholipid.

47. A microsphere of claim 46 wherein said phospholipid is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and a phosphatidic acid, and said liposome further comprising polyethylene glycol.

48. A microsphere of claim 46 wherein said microsphere has one lipid layer.
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