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Details for Patent: 5,853,752

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Details for Patent: 5,853,752

Title: Methods of preparing gas and gaseous precursor-filled microspheres
Abstract:Methods of and apparatus for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled liposomes are described. Gaseous precursor-filled liposomes prepared by these methods are particularly useful, for example, in ultrasonic imaging applications and in therapeutic drug delivery systems.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Fritz; Thomas A. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry (Tucson, AZ), Ramaswami; VaradaRajan (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ), Wu; Guanli (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: ImaRx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Tucson, AZ)
Filing Date:Jun 06, 1995
Application Number:08/487,230
Claims:1. A method for preparing temperature activated gaseous precursor-filled lipid microspheres comprising shaking an aqueous solution comprising a lipid in the presence of a gaseous precursor at a temperature below the gel state to liquid crystalline state phase transition temperature of the lipid, wherein upon activation of said gaseous precursor to a gas the lipid microspheres have at least about 50% volume of gas in the interior thereof.

2. The method as in claim 1 wherein said method is performed at the activation temperature of the gaseous precursor.

3. The method as in claim 1 wherein the shaking step comprises vortexing.

4. The method as in claim 1 further comprising filtering and heat sterilizing said aqueous solution.

5. The method as in claim 1 further comprising extruding the microspheres through at least one filter of a selected pore size.

6. The method as in claim 5 wherein the pore size is about 10 .mu.m or smaller.

7. The method as in claim 1 wherein said aqueous solution comprising a lipid is prepared by a method comprising hydrating a dried lipid.

8. The method as in claim 1 wherein said gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of fluorine, perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, sulfur hexafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, bromochlorofluoromethane, octafluoropropane, 1,1 dichloro, fluoro ethane, hexa fluoroethane, hexafluoro-2-butyne, perfluoropentane, perfluorobutane, octafluoro-2-butene, hexafluorobuta-1,3-diene, octafluorocyclopentene, hexafluoroacetone, isopropyl acetylene, allene, tetrafluoro allene, boron trifluoride, 1,2-butadiene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2,3-trichloro,2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl,1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, butadiene, 1-fluoro-butane, 2-methyl-butane, decafluoro butane, 1-butene, 2-butene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-2-butene, 4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butene-3-yne, butyl nitrate, 1-butyne, 2-butyne, 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne, 3-methyl-1-butyne, perfluoro-2-butyne, 2-bromo-butyraldehyde, carbonyl sulfide, crotononitrile, cyclobutane, methyl-cyclobutane, octafluoro-cyclobutane, perfluoro-cyclobutene, 3-chloro-cyclopentene, cyclopropane, 1,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane, 1,1-dimethyl-cyclopropane, 1,2-dimethyl cyclopropane, ethyl cyclopropane, methyl cyclopropane, diacetylene, 3-ethyl-3-methyl diaziridine, 1,1,1-trifluoro-diazoethane, dimethyl amine, hexafluoro-dimethyl amine, dimethylethylamine, bis-(Dimethyl phosphine)amine, 2,3-dimethyl-2-norbornane, perfluoro-dimethylamine, dimethyloxonium chloride, 1,3-dioxolane-2-one, 4-methyl, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,1,1 trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1 dichloro ethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 1,2-difluoro ethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoro ethane, 2-chloro,1,1-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro ethane, 2-chloro, 1,1-difluoro ethane, chloroethane, chloropentafluoro ethane, dichlorotrifluoroethane, fluoroethane, hexafluoro-ethane, nitro-pentafluoro ethane, nitroso-pentafluoro ethane, perfluoro ethane, perfluoro ethylamine, ethyl vinyl ether, 1,1-dichloro ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoro ethylene, 1,2-difluoro ethylene, Methane, Methane-sulfonyl chloride-trifluoro, Methane-sulfonyl fluoride-trifluoro, Methane-(pentafluorothio)trifluoro, Methane-bromo difluoro nitroso, Methane-bromo fluoro, Methane-bromo chloro-fluoro, Methane-bromo-trifluoro, Methane-chloro difluoro nitro, Methane-chloro dinitro, Methane-chloro fluoro, Methane-chloro trifluoro, Methane-chloro-difluoro, Methane-dibromo difluoro, Methane-dichloro difluoro, Methane-dichloro-fluoro, Methane-difluoro, Methane-difluoro-iodo, Methane-disilano, Methane-fluoro, Methane-iodo-trifluoro, Methane-nitro-trifluoro, Methane-nitroso-trifluoro, Methane-tetrafluoro, Methane-trichlorofluoro, Methane-trifluoro, Methanesulfenylchloride-trifluoro, 2-Methyl butane, Methyl ether, Methyl isopropyl ether, Methyl lactate, Methyl nitrite, Methyl sulfide, Methyl vinyl ether, Neon, Neopentane, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, 1,2,3-Nonadecane tricarboxylic acid-2-hydroxytrimethylester, 1-Nonene-3-yne, Oxygen, 1,4-Pentadiene, n-Pentane, Pentane-perfluoro, 2-Pentanone-4-amino-4-methyl, 1-Pentene, 2-Pentene {cis}, 2-Pentene {trans}, 1-Pentene-3-bromo, 1-Pentene-perfluoro, Phthalic acid-tetrachloro, Piperidine-2,3,6-trimethyl, Propane, Propane-1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoro, Propane-1,2-epoxy, Propane-2,2 difluoro, Propane-2-amino, Propane-2-chloro, Propane-heptafluoro-1-nitro, Propane-heptafluoro-1-nitroso, Propane-perfluoro, Propene, Propyl-1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloro, Propylene-1-chloro, Propylene-chloro-{trans}, Propylene-2-chloro, Propylene-3-fluoro, Propylene-perfluoro, Propyne, Propyne-3,3,3-trifluoro, Styrene-3-fluoro, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sulfur (di)-decafluoro(S2F10), Toluene-2,4-diamino, Trifluoroacetonitrile, Trifluoromethyl peroxide, Trifluoromethyl sulfide, Tungsten hexafluoride, Vinyl acetylene, Vinyl ether, and Xenon.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises an aliphatic compound with an alkyl group of between 2 to 30 carbons.

10. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid is a phospholipid.

11. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid is a triglyceride.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid is an oil.

13. The method of claim 1 further comprising one or more viscosity active compounds selected from the group consisting of alcohols, polyalcohols, propyleneglycol, glycerol, sorbitol, cellulose, methylcellulose, xanthan gum, hydroxymethylcellulose, carbohydrates, phosphorylated carbohydrates, and sulfonated carbohydrates.

14. The method of claim 1 further comprising one or more emulsifying agents selected from the group consisting of acacia, cholesterol, diethanolamine, glyceryl monostearate, lanolin alcohols, lecithin, monoglycerides, diglycerides, mono-ethanolamine, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, poloxamer, polyoxyethylene 50 stearate, polyoxyl 35 caster oil, polyoxyl 10 oleyl ether, polyoxyl 20 cetylstearyl ether, polyoxyl 40 stearate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol diacetate, propylene glycol monostearate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium stearate, sorbitan monostearic acid, trolamine, emulsifying wax.

15. The method of claim 1 further comprising suspending agents selected from the group consisting of acacia, agar, alginic acid, aluminum mono-stearate, bentonite, magma, carbomer 934P, carboxymethylcellulose, calcium and sodium and sodium 12, carrageenan, cellulose, dextrin, gelatin, guar gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, methylcellulose, pectin, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, propylene glycol alginate, silicon dioxide, sodium alginate, tragacanth, xanthum gum.

16. The method of claim 1 further comprising a vehicle selected from the group consisting of almond oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, ethyl oleate, isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, mineral oil, myristyl alcohol, octyl-dodecanol, olive oil, peanut oil, persic oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and squalene.

17. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises one or more polymers.

18. The method of claim 17 wherein said polymers have molecular weights of from about 500 to about 150,000,000.

19. The method of claim 17 wherein said polymer is a protein.

20. The method of claim 17 wherein said polymer is a synthetic polymer.

21. The method of claim 1 wherein said polymer has the formula XCHY--(CH.sub.2).sub.n --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n --YCHX wherein X is an alcohol, Y is selected from the group consisting of OH or an alkyl group, and n is 0 to 10,000.

22. The method of claim 21 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyvinylalcohol, polyethyleneglycol, polypropyleneglycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone.

23. The method of claim 1 wherein said gaseous precursor has an activation temperature of from -150.degree. C. to 85.degree. C.

24. The method of claim 1 wherein said gaseous precursor has an activation temperature of from -125.degree. C. to 70.degree. C.

25. The method of claim 1 wherein said gaseous precursor has an activation temperature of from -100.degree. C. to 70.degree. C.

26. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises a mixed solvent system of saline, glycerol and propylene glycol.

27. The method of claim 1 wherein said shaking comprises microemulsification.

28. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid bears a net negative charge.

29. The method of claim 28 wherein said lipid bearing a net negative charge comprises phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol.

30. The method of claim 28 wherein said lipid bearing a negative charge comprises phosphatidic acid.

31. The method of claim 28 wherein said lipid bearing a net negative charge comprises about 1 mole % to about 20 mole %.

32. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine covalently linked to polyethylene glycol.

33. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and polyethylene glycol.

34. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises at least one dipalmitoyl lipid.

35. The method of claim 1 performed at a pressure above ambient pressure.

36. The method of claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise a monolayer.

37. A method of claim 36 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid.

38. A method of claim 37 wherein said gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

39. A method of claim 36 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is perfluoropentane.

40. A method of claim 36 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is sulfur hexafluoride.

41. A method of claim 36 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gaseous precursor is perfluoropropane.

42. The method of claim 36 wherein said lipid is a polymerized lipid.

43. The method of claim 36 wherein said microspheres further comprise polyethylene glycol.

44. A method of claim 1 further comprising lyophilizing said microspheres.

45. A method of claim 44 further comprising rehydrating said lyophilized microspheres.

46. A method of claim 1 wherein said gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, sulfur hexafluoride, perfluoromethane, perfluoroethane, perfluorobutane, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluoropentane and perfluorohexane.

47. A method of claim 46 wherein said gaseous precursor is a combination of nitrogen and perfluorohexane.

48. A method of claim 46 wherein said gaseous precursor is a combination of nitrogen and perfluoropropane.

49. The method of claim 1 wherein said lipid comprises fatty acids, lysolipids, phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine, dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, sphingolipids, sphingomyelin, glycolipids, ganglioside GM1, ganglioside GM2, glucolipids, sulfatides, glycosphingolipids, phosphatidic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, lipids covalently bonded to polyethyleneglycol, lipids covalently bonded to chitin, lipids covalently bonded to hyaluronic acid, lipids covalently bonded to polyvinylpyrrolidone, lipids bearing sulfonated monosaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated disaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated oligosaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated polysaccharides, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, cholesterol hemisuccinate, tocopherol hemisuccinate, lipids with ether-linked fatty acids, lipids with ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, diacetyl phosphate, stearylamine, cardiolipin, phospholipids with short chain fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyldiglyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methyl-amino)octadecanoic acid, N-(12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methyl-amino)octadeca noyl)-2-aminopalmitic acid, cholesteryl(4'-trimethylammonio)butanoate, N-succinyldioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-3-succinylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-succinylglycerol, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-1-hexadecyl-2-palmitoylglycerophosphoethanolamine, palmitoylhomocysteine, lauryltrimethylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium bromide, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, pentafluoro octadecyl iodide, perfluorooctylbromide, perfluorodecalin, perfluorododecalin, perfluorooctyliodide, perfluorotripropylamine, and perfluorotributylamine.

50. The method of claim 1, wherein upon activation of said gaseous precursor to a gas the microspheres have at least about 75% volume of gas in the interior thereof.

51. The method of claim 50, wherein upon activation of said gaseous precursor to a gas the microspheres have at least about 90% volume of gas in the interior thereof.
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