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Details for Patent: 5,817,785

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Details for Patent: 5,817,785

Title: Methods of producing nucleic acid ligands
Abstract:The present invention includes methods for the identification and production of improved nucleic acid ligands based on the SELEX process. Also included are nucleic acid ligands to the HIV-RT protein identified according to the methods described therein.
Inventor(s): Gold; Larry (Boulder, CO), Tuerk; Craig (Boulder, CO)
Assignee: NeXstar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Boulder, CO)
Filing Date:Nov 13, 1996
Application Number:08/748,697
Claims:1. An improved nucleic acid ligand, wherein said improvement is produced by modifying a nucleic acid ligand to have at least one of the following improved properties: decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, said nucleic acid ligand being a ligand of a given target, said improved nucleic acid identified by the method comprising the steps of:

a) contacting a candidate mixture of nucleic acids with the target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

b) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

c) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids;

d) repeating steps a)-c), as necessary, to identify a nucleic acid ligand;

e) modifying the nucleic acid ligand of step d), wherein said modifying comprises adding, deleting, or substituting nucleotide residues, wherein said residues may be chemically modified, and/or chemically modifying said nucleic acid ligand; and

f) determining whether the modified nucleic acid ligand of step e) has at least one of the improved properties relative to the nucleic acid ligand of step d), whereby said improved nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

2. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein step e) comprises preparing an improved nucleic acid ligand that is identical to the nucleic acid ligand of step d) except for a single residue substitution.

3. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein step e) comprises preparing an improved nucleic acid ligand that is identical to the nucleic acid ligand of step d) except for the deletion of one or more terminal residues.

4. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein step e) comprises preparing an improved nucleic acid ligand by chemically modifying the nucleic acid ligand of step d).

5. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein in step e) the nucleic acid ligand of step d) is modified while in contact with the target.

6. An improved nucleic acid ligand, wherein said improvement is produced by modifying a nucleic acid ligand to have at least one of the following improved properties: decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, said nucleic acid ligand being a ligand of a given target, said improved nucleic acid ligand identified by the method comprising the steps of:

a) contacting a candidate mixture with the target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

b) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

c) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids;

d) repeating steps a)-c) as necessary to identify said nucleic acid ligand;

e) determining the three-dimensional structure of said nucleic acid ligand;

f) modifying the nucleic acid ligand of step d) based on the determined three-dimensional structure of the nucleic acid ligand, wherein said modifying comprises adding, deleting, or substituting nucleotide residues, wherein said residues may be chemically modified, and/or chemically modifying said nucleic acid ligand; and

g) determining whether the modified nucleic acid ligand of step f) has improved properties relative to the nucleic acid of step d), whereby said improved nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

7. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 6 wherein in step e) the threedimensional structure of the nucleic acid ligand is determined by:

i) chemically modifying denatured and nondenatured nucleic acid ligand; and

ii) determining which nucleotide residues are modified in the denatured nucleic acid ligand that are not modified in the nondenatured nucleic acid ligand.

8. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 6 wherein in each of steps d) and e), said nucleic acid ligand comprises a plurality of nucleic acid ligands, and in step e) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleic acid ligand is determined by covariance analysis on said plurality of nucleic acid ligands of step d).

9. An improved nucleic acid ligand to a given target, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is designed from a plurality of nucleic acid ligands, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand has at least one of the following improved properties: decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, and wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is identified by the method comprising the steps of:

a) determining the three dimensional structure of said nucleic acid ligands;

b) determining the nucleic acid residues of said nucleic acid ligands that bind to said target; and

c) designing said improved nucleic acid ligand to said target, wherein said improved properties are obtained by modifying said nucleic acid ligand by adding, deleting, or substituting nucleotide residues based on said determinations made in steps a) and b) and wherein said added or substituted nucleotide residues may be chemically modified, whereby an improved nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

10. An improved nucleic acid ligand having at least one of the following improved properties: decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, said nucleic acid ligand being a ligand of a given target, said improved nucleic acid identified by the method comprising the steps of:

(a) contacting a candidate mixture of nucleic acids with said target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

(b) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

(c) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids;

(d) repeating steps (a)-(c), as necessary, to identify a nucleic acid ligand;

(e) determining the three-dimensional structure of said nucleic acid ligand;

(f) determining the nucleic acid residues of the nucleic acid ligand that are necessary to bind to said target; and

(g) designing said improved ligand to said target, wherein said improved properties are obtained by modifying said nucleic acid ligand by adding, deleting, or substituting nucleotide residues based on said determinations made in steps e) and f) and wherein said added or substituted nucleotide residues may be chemically modified, whereby said improved nucleic acid ligand may be designed.

11. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein step e) comprises the substitution of chemically modified nucleotides in the nucleic acid ligand of step d).

12. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 11 wherein said chemically modified nucleotides are selected from the group consisting of 5-position modified pyrimidines, 8-position modified purines, 2'-modified nucleotides or combinations thereof.

13. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 11 wherein step e) comprises the substitution of a 2'-modified nucleotide for its respective 2'-OH nucleotide in the nucleic acid ligand of step d).

14. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 13 wherein said 2'-modified nucleotide is selected from the group consisting of 2'-F nucleotides, 2'-NH.sub.2 nucleotides, and 2'-O-Methyl nucleotides.

15. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein step e) comprises the addition of nucleotides to the 5' end of the nucleic acid ligand of step d), the 3' end of the nucleic acid ligand of step d), or both.

16. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein the improved property determined in step f) is enhanced binding affinity for the target.

17. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein the improved property determined in step f) is enhanced stability.

18. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 17 wherein said improved property of enhanced stability is determined by resistance to degradation in situ.

19. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 17 wherein said improved enhanced stability is determined by decreased clearance in situ.

20. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 17 wherein said improved property of enhanced stability is determined by reduced nucleic acid content relative to the unimproved nucleic acid ligand.

21. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 1 wherein the improved property determined in step f) is decreased size.

22. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 21 wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand having said decreased size property retains binding affinity for the target.

23. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 21 wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand having said decreased size property has enhanced binding affinity for the target.

24. An improved nucleic acid ligand having at least one of the following improved properties; decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is designed from a plurality of unimproved nucleic acid ligands, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is identified by the method comprising the steps of:

a) contacting a candidate mixture with a target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

b) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

c) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids;

d) repeating steps a)-c) as necessary to identify said nucleic acid ligands;

e) determining the consensus primary structure of said nucleic acid ligands;

f) designing an improved nucleic acid ligand by adding, deleting, or substituting nucleotide residues based on the determined consensus primary structure of the nucleic acid ligands of step d); and

g) determining whether the improved nucleic acid ligand of step f) has improved properties relative to the nucleic acid ligands of step d), whereby said improved nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

25. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 24 wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand of step f) is designed by deleting a portion of the nucleotides that are not part of the consensus primary structure.

26. An improved nucleic acid ligand having at least one of the following improved properties: decreased size, enhanced stability, or enhanced binding affinity, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is designed from a plurality of unimproved nucleic acid ligands, wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand is identified by the method comprising the steps of:

a) contacting a candidate mixture with a target, wherein nucleic acids having an increased affinity to the target relative to the candidate mixture may be partitioned from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

b) partitioning the increased affinity nucleic acids from the remainder of the candidate mixture;

c) amplifying the increased affinity nucleic acids to yield a ligand-enriched mixture of nucleic acids;

d) repeating steps a)-c) as necessary to identify said nucleic acid ligands;

e) determining the consensus secondary structure of said nucleic acid ligand;

f) designing an improved nucleic acid ligand by adding, deleting or substituting nucleotide residues based on said consensus secondary structure, wherein said residues may be chemically modified based on the determined consensus secondary structure of the nucleic acid ligands of step d); and

g) determining whether the improved nucleic acid ligand of step f) has improved properties relative to the nucleic acid ligands of step d), whereby said improved nucleic acid ligand may be identified.

27. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 26 wherein said improved nucleic acid ligand of step f) is designed by deleting a portion of the nucleotides that are not part of the consensus secondary structure.

28. The improved nucleic acid ligand of claim 26 wherein said nucleic acid ligand in step e) comprises a plurality of nucleic acid ligands and the consensus secondary structure is determined by covariance analysis.
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