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Details for Patent: 5,766,633

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Details for Patent: 5,766,633

Title: Oral drug delivery compositions and methods
Abstract:The present invention relates to an oral drug delivery system, and in particular to modified amino acids and modified amino acid derivatives for use as a delivery system of sensitive agents such as bioactive peptides. The modified amino acids and derivatives can form non-covalent mixtures with active biological agents and in an alternate embodiment can releasably carry active agents. Modified amino acids can also form drug containing microspheres. These mixtures are suitable for oral administration of biologically active agents to animals. Methods for the preparation of such amino acids are also disclosed.
Inventor(s): Milstein; Sam J. (Larchmont, NY), Barantsevitch; Evgueni N. (New Rochelle, NY), Sarubbi; Donald J. (Bronxville, NY), Leone-Bay; Andrea (Ridgefield, CT), Paton; Duncan R. (Purdys, NY)
Assignee: Emisphere Technologies, Inc. (Hawthorne, NY)
Filing Date:Oct 23, 1995
Application Number:08/537,888
Claims:1. A composition comprising:

(A) at least one biologically-active agent; and

(B) at least one carrier comprising

(a)

(i) at least one acylated aldehyde of an amino acid,

(ii) at least one acylated ketone of an amino acid,

(iii) at least one acylated aldehyde of a peptide,

(iv) at least one acylated ketone of a peptide, or

(v) any combination of (a) (i), (a) (ii), (a) (iii) and (a) (iv);

(b)

(i) carboxymethyl-phenylalanine-leucine,

(ii) 2-carboxy-3-phenylpropionyl-leucine,

(iii) 2-benzylsuccinic acid, or

(iv) an actinonin, or

(v) a compound having the formula:

wherein:

Ar is a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl or naphthyl;

R.sup.1 is ##STR9## wherein: R.sup.3 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.24 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.24 alkenyl, phenyl, naphthyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) phenyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl) phenyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) naphthyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl) naphthyl, phenyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl), phenyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl), naphthyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) and naphthyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.1 alkenyl)

R.sup.3 is optionally substituted with C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkoxy, --OH, --SH, --CO.sub.2 R.sup.5, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclic, aryl, alkaryl, heteroaryl or heteroalkaryl or any combination thereon;

R.sup.5 is hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl or C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl;

R.sup.3 is optionally interrupted by oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur or any combination thereof; and

R.sup.4 is hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl or C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl;

and n is from 1 to 5;

(vi) any combination of (b) (i), (b) (ii), (b) (iii), (b) (iv) and (b) (v); or

(c) a combination of (a) and (b).

2. The composition according to claim 1 wherein R.sup.3 is substituted with a substituent selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkoxy, --OH, --SH, --CO.sub.2 R.sup.5 or any combination thereof.

3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said biologically-active agent is selected from the group consisting of a peptide, a mucopolysaccharide, a carbohydrate, a lipid, a pesticide or any combination thereof.

4. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said biologically-active agent is selected from the group consisting of human growth hormone, bovine growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, an interferon, interleukin-II, insulin, heparin, calcitonin, erythropoietin, atrial naturetic factor, an antigen, a monoclonal antibody, somatostatin, adrenocorticotropin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin, cromolyn sodium, vancomycin, desferrioxamine (DFO), or any combination thereof.

5. The composition according to claim 4, wherein said biologically-active agent comprises an interferon, interleukin-II, insulin, heparin, calcitonin, oxytocin, vasopressin, cromolyn sodium, vancomycin, DFO or any combination thereof.

6. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said amino acid is a naturally occurring amino acid.

7. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said amino acid is a synthetic amino acid.

8. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said peptide comprises at least one naturally occurring amino acid.

9. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said peptide comprises at least one synthetic amino acid.

10. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said acylated aldehyde or acylated ketone is acylated by an acylating agent having the formula ##STR10## wherein R.sup.9 is alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic, and X is a leaving group.

11. A dosage unit form comprising

(A) a composition according to claim 1; and

(B)

(a) an excipient,

(b) a diluent,

(c) a disintegrant,

(d) a lubricant,

(e) a plasticizer,

(f) a colorant,

(g) a dosing vehicle, or

(h) any combination thereof.

12. A dosage unit form according to claim 11 comprising a tablet, a capsule, or a liquid.

13. A method for administering a biologically-active agent to an animal, said method comprising administering orally to said animal a composition as defined in claim 1.

14. A method for preparing a composition, said method comprising mixing:

(A) at least one biologically-active agent;

(B) a carrier comprising

(a)

(i) at least one acylated aldehyde of an amino acid,

(ii) at least one acylated ketone of an amino acid,

(iii) at least one acylated aldehyde of a peptide,

(iv) at least one acylated ketone of a peptide, or

(v) any combination of (a) (i), (a) (ii) (a) (iii) a (iv);

(b)

(i) carboxymethyl-phenylalanine-leucine,

(ii) 2-carboxy-3-phenylpropionyl-leucine,

(iii) 2-benzylsuccinic acid, or

(iv) an actinonin, or

(v) a compound having the formula:

wherein:

Ar is a substituted or unsubstituted phenyl or naphthyl;

R.sup.1 is ##STR11## wherein: R.sup.3 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.24 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.24 alkenyl, phenyl, naphthyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) phenyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl) phenyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) naphthyl, (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl) naphthyl, phenyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl), phenyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl), naphthyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl) and naphthyl (C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkenyl);

R.sup.3 is optionally substituted with C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkoxy, --OH, --SH --CO.sub.2 R.sup.5, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, heterocyclic, aryl, alkaryl, heteroaryl or heteroalkaryl or any combination thereof;

R.sup.5 is hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl or C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl;

R.sup.3 is optionally interrupted by oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur or any combination thereof; and

R.sup.4 is hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkyl or C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 alkenyl;

and n is from 1 to 5;

(vi) or any combination of (b) (i), (b) (ii), (b) (iii), (b) (iv) and (b) (v);

(c) a combination of (a) and (b); and

(C) optionally a dosing vehicle.

15. A pharmacological composition comprising:

(A) at least one biologically-active agent; and

(B) at least one carrier comprising

(a)

(i) at least one acylated aldehyde of an amino acid,

(ii) at least one acylated ketone of an amino acid,

(iii) at least one acylated aldehyde of a peptide,

(iv) at least one acylated ketone of a peptide, or

(v) any combination of (a) (i), (a) (ii) (a) (iii) and (a) (iv);

(b)

(i) carboxymethyl-phenylalanine-leucine,

(ii) 2-carboxy-3-phenylpropionyl-leucine,

(iii) 2-benzylsuccinic acid, or

(iv) 4-(phenylsulfonamido)-4-phenylbutyric acid,

(v) or any combination of (b) (i), (b) (ii), (b) (iii) and (b) (iv); or

(c) a combination of (a) and (b).

16. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said biologically-active agent comprises at least one peptide, mucopolysaccharide, carbohydrate, or lipid.

17. The composition according to claim 16, wherein said biologically-active agent is selected from the group consisting of human growth hormone, bovine growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, an interferon, interleukin-II, insulin, heparin, calcitonin, erythropoietin, atrial naturetic factor, an antigen, a monoclonal antibody, somatostatin, adrenocorticotropin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin, vancomycin, desferrioxamine (DFO), or any combination thereof.

18. The composition according to claim 17, wherein said biologically-active agent comprises an interferon, interleukin-II, insulin, heparin, calcitonin, oxytocin, vasopressin, vancomycin, DFO and combinations thereof.

19. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said amino acid is a naturally occurring amino acid.

20. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said amino acid is a synthetic amino acid.

21. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said peptide comprises at least one naturally occurring amino acid.

22. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said peptide comprises at least one synthetic amino acid.

23. The composition according to claim 15, wherein said acylated aldehyde or acylated ketone is acylated by an acylating agent having the formula ##STR12## wherein R.sup.7 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl, and X is a leaving group.

24. The composition according to claim 23, wherein R.sup.7 is methyl, ethyl, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, phenyl or benzyl.

25. The composition according to claim 23, wherein R.sup.7 is cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl, or cycloheptyl, or acetyl.

26. A composition according to claim 15, wherein said biologically active agent comprises calcitonin, and said carrier comprises acetyl phenylalanine aldehyde and carbomethoxy phenylalanyl-leucine.

27. A dosage unit form comprising

(A) a pharmacological composition according to claim 1; and

(B)

(a) an excipient,

(b) a diluent,

(c) a disintegrant,

(d) a lubricant,

(e) a plasticizer,

(f) a colorant,

(g) a dosing vehicle, or

(h) any combination thereof.

28. A dosage unit form according to claim 27 comprising a tablet, a capsule, or a liquid.

29. A dosage unit form according to claim 27, wherein said dosing vehicle is selected from the group consisting of water, 1,2-propane diol, ethanol or any combination thereof.

30. A method for administering a biologically-active agent to a animal in need of said agent, said method comprising administering orally to said animal a composition as defined in claim 16.

31. A method for preparing a pharmacological composition, said method comprising mixing:

(A) at least one biologically-active agent;

(B) a carrier comprising

(a)

(i) at least one acylated aldehyde of an amino acid,

(ii) at least one acylated ketone of an amino acid,

(iii) at least one acylated aldehyde of a peptide,

(iv) at least one acylated ketone of a peptide, or

(v) any combination of (a) (i), (a) (ii), (a) (iii) and (a) (iv);

(b)

(i) carboxymethyl-phenylalanine-leucine,

(ii) 2-carboxy-3-phenylpropionyl-leucine,

(iii) 2-benzylsuccinic acid, or

(iv) 4-(phenylsulfonamido)-4-phenylbutyric acid,

(v) or any combination of (b) (i), (b) (ii), (b) (iii) and (b) (iv); or

(c) a combination of (a) and (b); and

(C) optionally a dosing vehicle.

32. The compound N-cyclohexanoylphenylalanine aldehyde.

33. A composition comprising an active agent and one or more modified amino acids comprising an amino acid amide or sulfonamide.

34. The composition according to claim 33, wherein said acid amides or sulfonamides.

35. The composition according to claim 33, wherein said modified amino acids are derived from reaction of an amino acid with an amino reactive modifying agent comprises benzene sulfonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, hippuryl chloride or amino acid carbodiimide.

36. A composition comprising an active agent encapsulated within a microsphere, said microsphere comprising a wall of at least one amino acid amide or sulfonamide.

37. The composition according to claim 36, wherein said amino acid amide or sulfonamide comprise a benzene sulfonamide or benzene amide of an amino acid.

38. A method for preparing a modified amino acid microsphere comprising the steps of:

(a) incubating at least one or more amino acid amide or sulfonamide in a aqueous acid solution so as to form said modified amino acid microsphere; and

(b) collecting said modified amino acid microsphere.

39. The method according to claim 38, wherein said amino acid amide or sulfonamide are derived from reaction of an amino acid with an amino reactive modifying agent comprising benzene sulfonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, hippuryl chloride or amino acid carbodiimide.

40. The method according to claim 38, wherein said aqueous acid solution further comprises a biologically-active agent.

41. The composition according to claim 1, wherein said amino acid or peptide is acylated or sulfonated by an

acylating agent having the formula ##STR13## or a sulfonating agent having the formula R.sup.7 --SO.sub.2 --X wherein R.sup.7 is alkyl, alkenyl, or aromatic, and X is a leaving group.
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