.

Pharmaceutical Business Intelligence

  • Anticipate P&T budget requirements
  • Evaluate market entry opportunities
  • Find generic sources and suppliers
  • Predict branded drug patent expiration

► Plans and Pricing

Upgrade to enjoy subscriber-only features like email alerts and data export. See the Plans and Pricing

DrugPatentWatch Database Preview

Details for Patent: 5,733,572

« Back to Dashboard

Details for Patent: 5,733,572

Title: Gas and gaseous precursor filled microspheres as topical and subcutaneous delivery vehicles
Abstract:Gas and gaseous precursor filled microspheres, and foams thereof, provide novel topical and subcutaneous delivery vehicles for various active ingredients, including drugs and cosmetics.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ), Matsunaga; Terry O. (Tucson, AZ), Yellowhair; David (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee: ImaRx Pharmaceutical Corp. (Tucson, AZ)
Filing Date:Nov 29, 1994
Application Number:08/346,426
Claims:1. A composition comprising a gas filled lipid-containing microsphere comprising at least about 50% gas in the interior thereof and an effective amount of a therapeutic agent or a cosmetic for topical or subcutaneous application to a selected tissue of a patient, wherein said therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of anti-fungal agents, hormones, vitamins, peptides, enzymes, anti-allergic agents, anti-coagulation agents, antituberculars, antivirals, antibiotics, antibacterials, antiinflammatory agents, antiprotozoans, local anesthetics, growth factors, cardiovascular agents, diuretics, and radioactive compounds.

2. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of scopolamine, nicotine, methylnicotinate, mechlorisone dibutyrate, naloxone, methanol, caffeine, salicylic acid, and 4-cyanophenol.

3. A composition according to claim 1 wherein anti-fungal agents are selected from the group consisting of ketoconazole, nystatin, griseofulvin, flucytosine, miconazole, and amphotericin B; wherein the hormones are selected from the group consisting of growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, estradiol, bcclomethasone dipropionate, betamethasone, betamethasone acetate and betamethasone sodium phosphate, vetamethasone disodium phosphate, vetamethasone sodium phosphate, cortisone acetate, dexamethasone, dexamethasone acetate, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, flunisolide, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone cypionate, hydrocortisone sodium phosphate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate, methylprednisolone sodium succinate, paramethasone acetate, prednisolone, prednisolone acetate, prednisolone sodium phosphate, prednisolone tebutate, prednisone, triamcinolone, triamcinolone acetonide, triamcinolone diacetate, triamcinolone hexacetonide and fludrocortisone acetate; wherein the vitamins are selected from the group consisting of cyanocobalamin neinoic acid, retinoids, retinol palmitate, ascorbic acid, and .alpha.-tocopherol; wherein the peptides and enzymes are selected from the group consisting of manganese super oxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase; wherein the anti-allergic agent is amelexanox; wherein the anti-coagulation agents are selected from the group consisting of phenprocoumon and heparin; wherein the antituberculars are selected from the group consisting of paraminosalicylic acid, isoniazid, capreomycin sulfate cycloserine, ethambutol hydrochloride ethionamnide, pyrazinamide, rifampin, and streptomycin sulfate; wherein the antivirals are selected from the group consisting of acyclovir, amantadine azidothymidine, ribavirin and vidarabine monohydrate; wherein the antibiotics are selected from the group consisting of dapsone, chloramphenicol, neomycin, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cephalexin, cephradine erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, bacampicillin, carbenicillin, dicloxacillin, cyclacillin, picloxacillin, hetacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, ticarcillin rifampin and tetracycline; wherein the antiinflammatories are selected from the group consisting of diflunisal, ibuprofen, indomethacin, meclofenamate, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, piroxicam, sulindac, tolmetin, aspirin and salicylates; wherein the antiprotozoans are selected from the group consisting of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, metronidazole, quinine and meglumine antimonate; wherein the local anesthetics are selected from the group consisting of bupivacaine hydrochloride, chloroprocaine hydrochloride, etidocaine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride, mepivacaine hydrochloride, procaine hydrochloride and tetracaine hydrochloride; wherein the growth factors are selected from the group consisting of Epidermal Growth Factor, acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor, Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, Nerve Growth Factor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Stem Cell Factor, Transforming Growth Factor of the .alpha. family and Transforming Growth Factor of the .beta. family; wherein the cardiovascular agents are selected from the group consisting of clonidine, propranolol, lidocaine, nicardipine and nitroglycerin; wherein the diuretics are selected from the group consisting of mannitol and urea; and wherein the radioactive particles are selected from the group consisting of strontium, iodine, rhenium and yttrium.

4. A composition according to claim 1 wherein said therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of:

(1) peptides selected from the group consisting of melanin concentrating hormone, melanin stimulating hormone, trypsin inhibitor, Bowman Burk inhibitor, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, bombesin, cholecystokinin, insulin, gastrin, endorphins, enkephalins, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, follicle stimulating hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, corticotropin, .beta.-lipotropin, .gamma.-lipotropin, calcitonin, glucagon, thyrotropin, elastin, cyclosporin, and collagen;

(2) monoclonal antibodies;

(3) factors selected from the group consisting of hyaluronic acid, heparin, mad heparin sulfate;

(4) anti-sense peptides and anti-sense oligonucleotides selected from the group consisting of an antisense oligonucleotide capable of binding the DNA encoding at least a portion of Ras, an antisense oligonucleotide capable of binding the DNA encoding at least a portion of basic fibroblast growth factor, and the antisense ras/p53 peptide;

(5) immunosuppressants and anti-inflammatory agents;

(6) chelants and chelating agents selected from the group consisting of penicillamine, citrate, ascorbate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dihydroxypropylethylenediamine, cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethylene glycol-bis(.beta.-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N',N',-tetraacetic acid, etidronic acid, dimethylsulfoxide, dipyridoxylethylenediaminediacetate-bisphosphate, N,N'-(1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy-2,1-phenylene))bis(N-(carboxymethyl), aminophenoltriacetic acid, tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine, cyanins, and salts thereof; and

(7) DNA encoding at least a portion of the following genes: HLA, dystrophin, CFTR, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor, adenosine deaminase, HDL receptor, thymidine kinase, HLA-B7, interleukin-4, melanocyte stimulating hormone gene, and melanin concentrating hormone gene.

5. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the cosmetic is selected from the group consisting of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, beta carotene, collagen, elastin, retinoic acid, aloe vera, lanolin, hyaluronic acid, and nucleosides.

6. A composition according to claim 1 wherein said cosmetic is a sunscreen agent, said sunscreen agent selected from the group consisting of 5% isobutyl-p-aminobenzoate, 5% diallyl trioleate, 2.5% monoglyceryl p-aminobenzoate, 4% propylene glycol p-aminobenzoate, and a composition comprising 2% benzyl salicylate and 2% benzyl cinnamate.

7. A composition according to claim 1 comprising a cosmetic wherein said composition takes the form of a cosmetic cream, ointment, lotion, skin softener, gel, blush, eye-liner, mascara, acne-medication, cold cream, cleansing cream, or oleaginous foam.

8. A composition according to claim 1 further comprising one or more compounds selected from the following:

(1) bacteriostatic agents selected from the group consisting of benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, butylparaben, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorobutanol, chlorocresol, methylparaben, phenol, potassium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid;

(2) antioxidants selected from the group consisting of tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate;

(3) preservatives selected from the group consisting of parabens, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, phenols, and essential oils;

(4) buffers and neutralizers;

(5) moisture content control agents and humectants;

(6) ointment bases selected from the group consisting of lanolin, lanolin anhydrous, hydrophilic ointment, white ointment, yellow ointment, polyethylene glycol ointment, petrolatum, hydrophilic petrolatum, white petrolatum, rose water ointment, and squalene;

(7) suspending and viscosity-increasing agents selected from the group consisting of acacia, agar, alginic acid, aluminum monostearate, bentonite, purified bentonite, magma bentonite, carbomer 934P, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium 12, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, microcrystalline cellulose, dextrin, gelatin, guar gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, methylcellulose, pectin, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, propylene glycol alginate, silicon dioxide, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, sodium alginate tragacanth, and xanthan gum;

(8) skin absorption enhancing agents selected from the group consisting of pyrrolidones, fatty acids, sulfoxides, amines, terpenes, terpenoids, surfactants, alcohols, urea, glycols, azone, n-alkanols, n-alkanes, orgelase, and alphaderm cream;

(9) bases selected from the group consisting of glycerol, propylene glycol, isopropyl myristate, urea in propylene glycol, ethanol and water, and polyethylene glycol;

(10) other agents selected from the group consisting of glycerin, hexylene glycol, sorbitol, propylene glycol, and calcium silicate;

(11) oleaginous vehicles;

(12) coloring agents; and

(13) foaming agents.

9. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from at least one biocompatible lipid.

10. A composition according to claim 9 wherein the biocompatible lipid is selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, lysolipids, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, glucolipids, sulfatides, glycosphingolipids, lipids bearing polymers, lipids bearing sulfonated monosaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated disaccharides, lipids bearing sulfonated oligosaccharides, cholesterols, tocopherols, lipids with ether-linked fatty acids, lipids with ester-linked fatty acids, polymerized lipids, diacetyl phosphates, dicetyl phosphates, stearylamines, cardiolipin, phospholipids with fatty acids of 6-8 carbons in length, synthetic phospholipids with asymmetric acyl chains, ceramides, non-ionic lipids, sterol aliphatic acid esters, sterol esters of sugar acids, esters of sugar acids, esters of sugar alcohols, esters of sugars, esters of aliphatic acids, saponins, glycerol, alcohols of 10-30 carbons in length, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)-1-thio-.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, digalactosyldiglyceride, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxy-1-thio-.beta.-D-galacto pyranoside, 6-(5-cholesten-3.beta.-yloxy)hexyl-6-amino-6-deoxyl-1-thio-.alpha.-D-manno pyranoside, 12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methylamino)-octadecanoic acid, N-[12-(((7'-diethylaminocoumarin-3-yl)carbonyl)methyl-amino)octadeca noyl]-2-aminopalmitic acid, cholesteryl(4'-trimethyl-ammonio)butanoate, N-succinyldioleoylphosphatidylethanol-amine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, palmitoylhomocysteine, cationic lipids, N-[1-(2,3-diolcoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammoium chloride, 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-(trimethylammonio)propane, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-(4'-trimethyl-ammonio)butanoyl-sn-glycerol, alkyl phosphonates, alkyl phosphinates, and alkyl phosphites.

11. A composition according to claim 10, wherein the phosphatidylcholine is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, dipentadecanoylphosphatidylcholine, dilauroylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and distearoylphosphatidylcholine; wherein the phosphatidylethanolamine is dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine; wherein the sphingolipid is sphingomyelin; wherein the glycolipid is selected from the group consisting of ganglioside GM1 and ganglioside GM2; wherein in the lipids bearing polymers the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, chitin, hyaluronic acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and cationic polymers, wherein said cationic polymers are selected from the group consisting of polylysine and polyarginine; wherein the sterol aliphatic acid esters are selected from the group consisting of cholesterol sulfate, cholesterol butyrate, cholesterol isobutyrate, cholesterol palmitate, cholesterol stearate, lanosterol acetate, ergosterol palmitate, and phytosterol n-butyrate; wherein the sterol esters of sugar acids are selected from the group consisting of cholesterol glucuronide, lanosterol glucuronide, 7-dehydrocholesterol glucuronide, ergosterol glucuronide, cholesterol gluconate, lanosterol gluconate, and ergosterol gluconate; wherein the esters of sugar acids and the esters of sugar alcohols are selected from the group consisting of lauryl glucuronide, stearoyl glucuronide, myristoyl glucuronide, lauryl gluconate, myristoyl gluconate, and stearoyl gluconate; wherein the esters of sugars and the esters of aliphatic acids are selected from the group consisting of sucrose laurate, fructose laurate, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearate, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid, accharic acid, and polyuronic acid; wherein the saponins are selected from the group consisting of sarsasapogenin, smilagenin, hederagenin, oleanolic acid, and digitoxigenin; wherein the glycerol esters are selected from the group consisting of glycerol tripalmitate, glycerol distearate, glycerol tristearate, glycerol dimyristate, and glycerol trimyristate; wherein the alcohols of 10-30 carbon length are selected from the group consisting of n-decyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, and n-octadecyl alcohol.

12. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from at least one biocompatible polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharides, semisynthetic polymers and synthetic polymers.

13. A composition according to claim 12 wherein the polysaccharide is selected from the group consisting of arabinans, fructans, fucans, galactans, galacturonans, glucans, mannans, xylans, levan, fucoidan, carrageenan, galatocarolose, pectic acid, pectin, amylose, pullulan, glycogen, amylopectin, cellulose, dextran, pustulan, chitin, agarose, keratan, chondroitan, dermatan, hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, xanthan gum, starch, natural homopolymers and heteropolymers containing one or more of the following aldoses, ketoses, acids or amines: erythrose, threose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, lyxose, allose, altrose, glucose, mannose, gulose, idose, galactose, talose, erythrulose, ribulose, xylulose, psicose, fructose, sorbose, tagatose, mannitol, sorbitol, lactose, sucrose, trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, glycine, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, histidine, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, galacturonic acid, mannuronic acid, glucosamine, galactosamine, and neuraminic acid.

14. A composition according to claim 12 wherein the semisynthetic polymer is selected from the group consisting of carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and methoxycellulose.

15. A composition according to claim 12 wherein the synthetic polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethylenes, polypropylenes, polyurethanes, polyamides, polystyrene, polylactic acids, fluorinated hydrocarbons, fluorinated carbons, and polymethylmethacrylate.

16. A composition according to claim 15 wherein the polyethylene is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene and polyethylene terephthlate; wherein the polypropylene is polypropylene glycol; wherein the polyurethane is selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylchloride and polyvinylpyrrolidone; wherein the polyamide is nylon; and wherein the fluorinated carbon is polytetrafluoroethylene.

17. A composition according to claim 1 additionally further comprising compounds selected from the group consisting of ingestible oils, viscosity modifiers, emulsifying and/or solubilizing agents, suspending and/or viscosity-increasing agents, synthetic suspending agents, and tonicity-raising agents.

18. A composition according to claim 17 wherein the ingestible oils are selected from the group consisting of peanut oil, canola oil, olive oil, safflower oil, and corn oil; wherein compounds for the mixed micelle systems are selected from lauryltrimethylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (alkyl=C.sub.12,C.sub.14,C.sub.16,), benzyldimethyldodecylammonium bromide/chloride, benzyldimethyl hexadecylammonium bromide/chloride, benzyl-dimethyltetradecylammonium bromide/chloride, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide/chloride, and cetylpyridinium bromide/chloride; wherein the viscosity modifiers are selected from the group consisting of carbohydrates, polyethers having a molecular weight in the range of between 400 and 100,000, di- and trihydroxy alkanes and their polymers having a molecular weight in the range of between 200 and 50,000; wherein the emulsifying and/or solubilizing agents are selected from the group consisting of acacia, cholesterol, diethanolamine, glyceryl monostearate, lanolin alcohols, lecithin, mono- and di-glycerides, mono-ethanolamine, oleic acid, oleyl alcohol, poloxamer, polyoxyethylene 50 stearate, polyoxyl 35 castor oil, polyoxyl 10 oleyl ether, polyoxyl 20 cetostearyl ether, polyoxyl 40 stearate, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol diacetate, propylene glycol monostearate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium stearate, sorbitan mono-laurate, sorbitan mono-oleate, sorbitan mono-palmitate, sorbitan monostearate, stearic acid, trolamine, and emulsifying wax; wherein the suspending and/or viscosity-increasing agents are selected from the group consisting of acacia, agar, alginic acid, aluminum monostearate, bentonite, purified bentonite, magma bentonite, carbomer 934P, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium 12, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, microcrystalline cellulose, dextran, gelatin, guar gum, veegum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium-aluminum-silicate, methylcellulose, pectin, polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, povidone, propylene glycol alginate, silicon dioxide, silicon dioxide, colloidal, zinc oxide, sodium alginate tragacanth, xanthan gum, .alpha.-d-gluconolactone, glycerol and mannitol; wherein the synthetic suspending agents are selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinylalcohol, polypropylene glycol, and polysorbate; and wherein the tonicity-raising agents are selected from the group consisting of sorbitol, propyleneglycol and glycerol.

19. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from a composition comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, glycerol and propylene glycol.

20. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from a composition comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid in an amount of from 0.5 to 30 mole percent.

21. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from a composition comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and distearoylphosphatidyl-choline in an amount of from 70 to 100 mole percent.

22. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the microsphere is prepared from a composition comprising: (I) a neutral lipid, (ii) a negatively charged lipid, and (iii) a lipid bearing a hydrophilic polymer; wherein the amount of said negatively charged lipid is greater than 1 mole percent of total lipid present, and the amount of lipid bearing a hydrophilic polymer is greater than 1 mole percent of total lipid present.

23. A composition according to claim 22 wherein the negatively charged lipid is phosphatidic acid; wherein the polymer in the lipid bearing a hydrophilic polymer has a weight average molecular weight of from about 400 to about 100,000 and is covalently bound to said lipid.

24. A composition according to claim 23 wherein said hydrophilic polymer of said lipid bearing hydrophilic polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethyleneglycol, polypropyleneglycol, polyvinylalcohol, and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone and copolymers thereof, and wherein said lipid of said lipid bearing a hydrophilic polymer is selected from the group consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine.

25. A composition according to claim 24 wherein the microsphere is prepared from about 77.5 mole percent dipalmitoylphophatidylcholine, about 12.5 mole percent of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid, and about 10 mole percent of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamnine-polyethyleneglycol 5000.

26. A composition according to claim 24 wherein the microsphere comprises about 82 mole percent dipalmitoylphophatidylcholine, about 10 mole percent of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid, and about 8 mole percent of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethyleneglycol 5000.

27. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas is selected from the group consisting of hexafluoro acetone, isopropyl acetylene, allene, tetrafluoro-allene, boron trifluoride, isobutane, 1,2-butadiene, 2,3-butadiene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2,3-trichloro-2-fluoro-1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene, butadiyne, 1-fluorobutane, 2-methyl-butane, decafluorobutane, 1-butene, 2-butene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 3-methyl-1-butene, perfluoro-1-butene, perfluoro-2-butene, 4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one, 2-methyl-1-butene-3-yne, butyl nitrate, 1-butyne, 2-butyne, 2-chloro-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-butyne, 3-methyl-1-butyne, perfluoro-2-butyne, 2-bromo-butyraldehyde, carbonyl sulfide, crotononitrile, cyclobutane, methyl-cyclobutane, octafluoro-cyclobutane, perfluoro-cyclobutene, 3-chlorocyclopentene, octafluorocyclopentene, cyclopropane, 1,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane, 1,1-dimethylcyclopropane, 1,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane, ethylcyclopropane, methylcyclopropane, diacetylene, 3-ethyl-3-methyl diaziridine, 1,1,1-trifluorodiazoethane, dimethyl amine, hexafluorodimethylamine, dimethylethylamine, bis-(dimethylphosphine)amine, perfluorohexane, 2,3-dimethyl-2-norbornane, perfluorodimethylamine, dimethyloxonium chloride, 1,3-dioxolane-2-one, 4-methyl-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,2-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, chloroethane, chloropentafluoroethane, dichlorotrifluoroethane, fluoroethane, hexafluoroethane, nitropentafluoroethane, nitrosopentafluoroethane, perfluoroethylamine, ethyl vinyl ether, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1,2-difluoroethane, 1,2-difluoroethane, methane, trifluoromethanesulfonylchloride, trifluoromethanesulfonylfluoride, bromodifluoronitrosomethane, bromofluoromethane, bromochlorofluoromethane, bromotrifluoromethane, chlorodifluoronitromethane, chlorodinitromethane, chlorofluoromethane, chlorotrifluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, dibromodifluoromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, dichlorofluoromethane, difluoromethane, difluoroiodomethane, disilanomethane, fluoromethane, iodomethane, iodotrifluoromethane, nitrotrifluoromethane, nitrosotrifluoromethane, tetrafluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, trifluoromethane, 2-methylbutane, methyl ether, methyl isopropyl ether, methyllactate, methylnitrite, methylsulfide, methyl vinyl ether, neopentane, nitrous oxide, 1,2,3-nonadecane-tricarboxylic acid-2-hydroxytrimethylester, 1-nonene-3-yne, 1,4-pentadiene, n-pentane, perfluoropentane, 4-amino-4-methylpentan-2-one, 1-pentene, 2-pentene(cis), 2-pentene(trans), 3-bromopent-1-ene, perfluoropent-1-ene, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 2,3,6-trimethylpiperidine, propane, 1,1,1,2,2,3-hexafluoropropane, 1,2-epoxypropane, 2,2-difluoropropane, 2-aminopropane, 2-chloropropane, heptafluoro-1-nitropropane, heptafluoro-1-nitrosopropane, perfluoropropane, propene, hexafluoropropane, 1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoro-2,3 dichloropropane, 1-chloropropane, chloropropane-(trans), 2-chloropropane, 3-fluoropropane, propyne, 3,3,3-trifluoropropyne, 3-fluorostyrene, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfur (di)-decafluoride(S.sub.2 F.sub.10), 2,4-diaminotoluene, trifluoroacetonitrile, trifluoromethyl peroxide, trifluoromethyl sulfide, tungsten hexafluoride, vinyl acetylene, vinyl ether, tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, octafluoropropane, decafluorobutane, dodecafluoropentane, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, hexafluorocyclopropane, octafluorocyclobutane, air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, argon, fluorine, xenon, neon, helium.

28. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluorocarbon gases, fluorohydrocarbon gases, and sulfur hexafluoride.

29. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas is selected from the group consisting of sulfur hexafluoride, unsaturated perfluorocarbons, saturated perfluorocarbons of the formula C.sub.n F.sub.2n+2, where n is from 1 to 12, and cyclic perfluorocarbons of the formula C.sub.n F.sub.2n, where n is from 3 to 8.

30. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas is derived from a gaseous precursor.

31. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas filled microsphere is stabilized.

32. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the gas filled microsphere is in the form of a foam.

33. A composition according to claim 32 wherein the foam is stabilized.

34. A composition of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises a monolayer.

35. A composition of claim 34 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid.

36. A composition of claim 35 wherein said gas is selected from the group consisting of perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, and sulfur hexafluoride.

37. A composition of claim 34 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gas is perfluoropentane.

38. A composition of claim 34 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gas is sulfur hexafluoride.

39. A composition of claim 34 wherein said monolayer comprises a phospholipid and said gas is perfluoropropane.

40. A method of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises a polymer.

41. A method of claim 40 wherein said polymer comprises an acrylate.

42. A method of claim 41 wherein said gas is air.

43. A composition of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises a polysaccharide.

44. A composition of claim 43 wherein said polysaccharide comprises galactose.

45. A composition of claim 44 wherein said gas is nitrogen.

46. A composition of claim 10 wherein said biocompatible lipid is a polymerized lipid.

47. A composition of claim 10 wherein said microsphere further comprises polyethylene glycol.

48. A composition of claim 10 wherein said fatty acids are selected from the group consisting of phosphatidic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, and oleic acid.

49. A composition of claim 1 wherein said compounds form a mixed micelle system.

50. A composition of claim 1 wherein said microsphere comprises a surfactant.

51. A composition of claim 50 wherein said gas is a perfluorocarbon.

52. A composition of claim 50 wherein said gas is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, perfluoromethane, perfluorethane, perfluoropropane, perfluorobutane, perfluoropentane, perfluorohexane, perfluoroheptane, hexafluorocyclopropane, octafluorocyclobutane, decafluorocyclopentane and sulfur hexafluoride.

53. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is perfluorohexane.

54. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is perfluoropentane.

55. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is perfluorobutane.

56. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is perfluoropropane.

57. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is a combination of nitrogen and perfluorohexane.

58. A composition of claim 52 wherein said gas is a combination of nitrogen and perfluoropropane.

59. A composition of claim 50 wherein said microsphere is lyophilized.

60. A composition of claim 1 wherein said therapeutic agent is selected from the group consisting of anti-fungal agents, hormones, vitamins, peptides, enzymes, anti-allergic agents, anti-coagulation agents, antituberculars, antivirals, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antiprotozoans, local anesthetics, growth factors, cardiovascular agents, diuretics, and radioactive compounds.
« Back to Dashboard

For more information try a trial or see the database preview and plans and pricing

How are People Using DrugPatentWatch?

Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice.

`abc