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Details for Patent: 5,643,575

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Details for Patent: 5,643,575

Title: Non-antigenic branched polymer conjugates
Abstract:Branched, substantially non-antigenic polymers are disclosed. Conjugates prepared with the polymers and biologically active molecules such as proteins and peptides demonstrate extended circulating life in vivo. Substantially fewer sites on the biologically active material are used as attachment sites. Methods of forming the polymer, conjugating the polymers with biologically active moieties and methods of using the conjugates are also disclosed.
Inventor(s): Martinez; Anthony (Hamilton Square, NJ), Greenwald; Richard B. (Somerset, NJ)
Assignee: Enzon, Inc. (Piscataway, NJ)
Filing Date:Oct 27, 1993
Application Number:08/143,403
Claims:1. A branched substantially non-antigenic polymer comprising the formula:

wherein (R) is a water soluble, substantially non-antigenic polymer containing a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group;

(n)=2 or 3;

(A) is a functional group capable of bonding with a biologically active nucleophile selected from the group consisting of proteins, peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and chemotherapeutic molecules or a moiety capable of being functionalized to react with said nucleophile; and

(L) is selected from the group consisting of ##STR16## wherein (.alpha.) is 1 to 5.

2. The polymer of claim 1, wherein at least one (R) is a straight-chained polymer.

3. The polymer of claim 1, wherein at least one (R) is a poly(alkylene oxide).

4. The polymer of claim 3, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) is an .alpha.-substituted poly(alkylene oxide).

5. The polymer of claim 3, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) is selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymers, alkyl-capped poly(ethylene oxides), and copolymers of block copolymers of poly(alkylene oxides).

6. The polymer of claim 5, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) has a molecular weight between about 200 and about 20,000.

7. The polymer of claim 6, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) has a molecular weight between 2,000 and about 10,000.

8. The polymer of claim 7, wherein said poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymer has a molecular weight of about 5,000.

9. The polymer of claim 2, wherein each (R) is a poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymer.

10. The polymer of claim 1, wherein at least one (R) is a branched polymer.

11. The activated branched polymer of claim 1, wherein (n) is two.

12. The polymer of claim 1, wherein (A) is a moiety selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, carbonyl, thiol and methylene hydrogen moieties.

13. The polymer of claim 1, wherein (A) is a succinimidyl or a p-nitrophenyl carbonate active ester.

14. The polymer of claim 1, wherein (A) further comprises a spacer moiety.

15. The polymer of claim 14, wherein said spacer moiety is selected from the group consisting of alkyls containing up to 18 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl groups containing up to 18 carbon atoms and polymers.

16. The polymer of claim 1, wherein at least one (R) further comprises a functional group capable of covalently bonding with nucleophiles.

17. A method of forming a biologically active conjugate, comprising: contacting a biologically active nucleophile selected from the group consisting of proteins, peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and chemotherapeutic molecules with an activated branched non-antigenic polymer having a structure represented by:

wherein:

(R) is a water-soluble substantially non-antigenic polymer containing a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group;

(n)=2 or 3;

(L) is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR17## wherein (.alpha.) is 1 to 5; and (A) is a functional group capable of forming a covalent bond with said biologically active nucleophile.

18. A polymer conjugate comprising the formula:

wherein:

(R) is a water-soluble substantially non-antigenic polymer containing a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group;

(n)=2 or 3;

(L) is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR18## wherein (.alpha.) is 1 to 5; (nucleophile) is a biologically active nucleophile selected from the group consisting of proteins, peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and chemotherapeutic molecules;

(A.sup.1) represents a covalent linkage between (L) and the biologically active nucleophile; and

(z) represents the number of polymers attached to the nucleophile.

19. The conjugate of claim 18, wherein at least one (R) is a poly(alkylene oxide).

20. The conjugate of claim 19, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide is an .alpha.-substituted poly(alkylene oxide).

21. The conjugate of claim 19, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) is selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymers, alkyl-capped poly(ethylene oxides), and copolymers of block copolymers of poly(alkylene oxides).

22. The conjugate of claim 21, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) has a molecular weight between about 200 and about 20,000.

23. The conjugate of claim 22, wherein said poly(alkylene oxide) has a molecular weight between 2,000 and about 10,000.

24. The conjugate of claim 23, wherein said poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymer has a molecular weight of about 5,000.

25. The conjugate of claim 19, wherein each (R) is a poly(ethylene glycol) homopolymer.

26. The conjugate of claim 18, wherein at least one (R) is a branched polymer.

27. The conjugate of claim 18, wherein (L) is a non-planar moiety.

28. The conjugate of claim 18, wherein said protein is selected from the group consisting of antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, fragments of antibodies and single chain-binding antigens.

29. The conjugate of claim 18, wherein said nucleophile is a member of the group consisting of anti-neoplastics, anti-infectives, anti-anxiety agents, anti-gastrointestinal agents, central nervous system-activating agents, analgesics, fertility, contraceptive agents, anti-inflammatory agents, steroidal agents, anti-urecemic agents, cardiovascular agents, vasodilating agents and vasconstricting agents.

30. The conjugate of claim 29, wherein said antineoplastic agent is selected from the group consisting of taxol, taxanes, taxoid molecules, anthracyclines and methotrexates.

31. A method of treatment comprising administering to a mammal in need such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of the branched polymer conjugate of claim 20.

32. A method of preparing a succinimidyl carbonate active ester of a branched non-antigenic polymer comprising the steps of:

i) contacting a branched non-antigenic polymer having a structure represented by:

wherein (R) independently comprises a water-soluble substantially non-antigenic polymer containing a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group;

(n)=2 or 3;

(L) is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR19## wherein (.alpha.) is 1 to 5; and (A) is a functional group capable of forming a covalent bond with a nucleophile; with p-nitrophenyl chloroformate; and

ii) reacting the p-nitrophenyl carbonate active ester of step i) with N-hydroxysuccinimide.

33. The method of claim 32, wherein (A) further comprises a spacer moiety.

34. A method of preparing a succinimidyl carbonate active ester of a branched non-antigenic polymer comprising

contacting a branched non-antigenic polymer having a structure represented by:

wherein (R) independently comprises a water-soluble substantially non-antigenic polymer containing a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group;

(n)=2 or 3;

(L) is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR20## wherein (.alpha.) is 1 to 5; and (A) is a functional group capable of forming a covalent bond with a nucleophile with bis-succinimidyl carbonate.

35. The method of claim 34, wherein (A) further comprises a spacer moiety.

36. The polymer of claim 1, wherein said C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 terminal group is methoxy.

37. The polymer of claim 1 wherein (A) is selected from the group consisting of carbonyl imidazole, azlactones, cyclic imide thiones, isocyanates, isothiocyanates, primary amines, hydrazines, acyl hydrazines, carbazates, semicarbazates, thiocarbazates and phenylglyoxals.

38. The polymer of claim 1 comprising a structure selected from the group consisting of: ##STR21## wherein a is 1 to 5 and R.sub.2 is a spacer moiety selected from the group consisting of: ##STR22## where (m) is an integer between 1 and 18 inclusive and (X) is H, OH, NH.sub.2, or COOH.

39. The polymer of claim 1 comprising a structure selected from the group consisting of: ##STR23##

40. The polymer of claim 1, wherein said (R) is linked to said (L) by a linkage selected from the group consisting of urethane, amide, ether, amine urea, thio and thiol.
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