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|Title:||X-ray contrast compositions useful in medical imaging|
|Abstract:||An X-ray contrast composition comprising particles consisting essentially of a non-radioactive crystalline organic x-ray contrast agent having a surface modifier adsorbed on the surface thereof in an amount sufficient to maintain an effective average particle size of less than 400 nm, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier therefor is useful in x-ray diagnostic medical imaging methods. The agents can be delivered to a specific tissue or fluid site, for example, the blood pool, liver or spleen. In one embodiment involving intravenous administration, preferred compositions provide effective imaging of the blood pool for remarkably long times.|
|Inventor(s):||Liversidge; Gary G. (West Chester, PA), Cooper; Eugene R. (Berwyn, PA), Shaw; J. Michael (King of Prussia, PA), McIntire; Gregory L. (West Chester, PA)|
|Assignee:||Eastman Kodak Company (Rochester, NY)|
|Filing Date:||Mar 07, 1994|
|Claims:||1. A method for the preparation of an x-ray contrast composition which includes the steps of: |
introducing 99.9-10% by weight of a non-radioactive organic x-ray contrast agent having a solubility in water of less than 10 mg/ml, a liquid medium, grinding media and optionally a surface modifier into a grinding vessel;
wet grinding said contrast agent and thereafter mixing a surface modifier with said liquid medium if a surface modifier was not present during grinding to form particles paving an average size of less than about 400 nm, wherein the final amount of said surface modifier is between 0.1 to 90% by weight; and
separating said particles from said grinding vessel and grinding media.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said wet grinding takes place in a dispersion mill selected from the group consisting of a ball mill, an attritor mill, a vibratory mill, a media mill, a sand mill and a bead mill.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said grinding media have an average size less than 3 mm.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein said grinding media have an average size less than 1 mm.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said grinding media have a density greater than 3 g/cm.sup.3.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein said grinding media is fabricated of a material selected from the group consisting of zirconium oxide, 95% ZrO stabilized with magnesia, zirconium silicate, glass, stainless steel, titania, alumina and 95% ZrO stabilized with yttrium.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein said wet grinding takes place for one minute to five days.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the temperature of said liquid medium is less than 40.degree. C.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles have an average size less than 300 nm.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein said particles have an average size less than 200 nm.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein said x-ray contrast agent is an iodinated aromatic compound.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein said x-ray contrast agent is an ester or an amide of an iodinated aromatic acid selected from the group consisting of diatrizoic acid, metrizoic acid, iothalamic acid, trimesic acid and iodipamide.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein said x-ray contrast agent is selected from ethyl-3,5-diacetoamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoate; ethyl(3,5-bis(acetylamino)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoyloxy) acetate; and ethyl-2-(3,5-bis(acetylamino)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoyloxy) butyrate.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein said liquid medium is water.
15. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier is a tetrafunctional block copolymer derived from sequential addition of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide to ethylenediamine.
16. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier has the formula ##STR6## wherein ##STR7## L' is a chemical bond, --O--, --S--, --NH--, --CONH-- or --SO.sub.2 NH--; R is a hydrophobic substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group;
each of R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 independently is hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms;
each of a and b independently is 0 or an integer from 1 to 3, provided that the sum of a and b is not greater than 3; and,
each of x and y independently is an integer from 3 to 7.
17. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier is a surfactant.
18. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier is a nonionic surfactant.
19. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier is an anionic surfactant.
20. The method of claim 1 wherein said surface modifier is selected from the group consisting of gelatin, casein, gum acacia, cholesterol, tragacanth, stearic acid, benzalkonium chloride, calcium stearate, glyceryl monostearate, cetostearyl alcohol, cetomacrogol emulsifying wax, sorbitan esters, polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, polyoxyethylene castor oil derivatives, polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycols, polyoxyethylene stearates, colloidal silicon dioxide, phosphates, sodium dodecylsulfate, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, noncrystalline cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate, triethanolamine, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, poloxomers, poloxamines, dextran, a dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, and an alkyl aryl polyether sulfonate.
21. The method of claim 1 further comprising the step of subjecting the x-ray contrast agent to airjet or fragmentation milling prior to introducing said agent, said liquid medium and said grinding media into said grinding vessel.