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Details for Patent: 5,352,435

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Details for Patent: 5,352,435

Title: Ionophore containing liposomes for ultrasound imaging
Abstract:Liposomes suitable as ultrasound contrast agents which contain media of various types including gases, gaseous precursors activated by pH, temperature or pressure, as well as other solid or liquid contrast enhancing agents, are described. Methods of using the same as ultrasound contrast agents are also disclosed. The present invention also comprises novel methods for synthesizing liposomes having encapsulated therein gases.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee:
Filing Date:Oct 27, 1992
Application Number:07/967,974
Claims:1. A contrast agent for ultrasonic imaging which comprises an ionophore-containing liposome having encapsulated therein a pH-activated gaseous precursor.

2. A contrast agent according to claim 1 wherein said pH-activated gaseous precursor is selected from the group consisting of metal carbonate and metal bicarbonate salts.

3. A contrast agent according to claim 2 wherein said pH-activated gaseous precursor is sodium bicarbonate.

4. A contrast agent according to claim 1 wherein said ionophore in said ionophore-containing liposome is selected from the group consisting of carbonylcyanide, p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, carbonylcyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone, carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazine, tetrachloro-2-trifluoromethyl benzimidazole, 5,6-dichloro-2-trifluoromethyl benzimidazole, Uncoupler 1799, gramicidin, alamethicin, filipin, etruscomycin, nystatin, pimaricin, amphotericin, valinomycin, enniatin, beauvericin, monomycin, nonactin, monactin, dinactin, trinactin, tetranactin, antamanide, nigericin, monensin, salinomycin, narisin, mutalomycin, carriomycin, dianemycin, septamycin, A-204 A, X-206, X-537 A, A-23187 and dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6.

5. A contrast agent for ultrasonic imaging which comprises a liposome having encapsulated therein a solid contrast enhancing agent selected from the group consisting of magnetite and solid iodine particles or a liquid contrast enhancing agent selected from the group consisting of solubilized iodinated compounds.

6. A contrast agent according to claim 1 wherein the liposome is comprised of lipid selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, lysolipids, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysolipids, cholesterol, cholesterol hemisuccinate, glycosphingolipids, glycolipids, glucolipids, sulphatides, and tocopherol hemisuccinate.

7. A contrast agent according to claim 6 wherein the liposome is comprised of phosphatidylcholine.

8. A contrast agent according to claim 6 wherein the liposome is comprised of cholesterol and phosphatidylchcline.

9. A contrast agent according to claim 1 wherein the liposome has a mean outer diameter of between about 30 nanometers and about 2 microns.

10. A contrast agent according to claim 1 wherein the liposome has a mean outer diameter of between about 2 microns and about 10 microns.

11. A contrast agent according to claim 5 wherein the liposome is comprised of lipids selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, lysolipids, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysolipids, cholesterol, cholesterol hemisuccinate, glycosphingolipids, glycolipids, glucolipids, sulphatides, and tocopherol hemisuccinate.

12. A contrast agent according to claim 11 wherein the liposome is comprised of phosphatidylcholine.

13. A contrast agent according to claim 11 wherein the liposome is comprised of cholesterol and phosphatidylchcline.

14. A contrast agent according to claim 5 wherein the liposome has a mean outer diameter of between about 30 nanometers and about two microns.

15. A contrast agent according to claim 5 wherein the liposome has a mean outer diameter of between about 2 microns and about 10 microns.

16. A contrast agent according to claim 5 wherein said contrast enhancing agent is a solid selected from the group consisting of magnetite and solid iodine particles.

17. A contrast agent according to claim 16 wherein said solid iodine particles are iodipamide ethyl ester.

18. A contrast agent according to claim 5 wherein said contrast enhancing agent is a liquid selected from the group consisting of solubilized iodinated compounds.
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