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Details for Patent: 5,288,498

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Details for Patent: 5,288,498

Title: Compositions of oral nondissolvable matrixes for transmucosal administration of medicaments
Abstract:Compositions and methods of manufacture for producing a medicament composition capable of absorption through the mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus. The present invention relates to such compositions and methods which are useful in administering lipophilic and nonlipophilic drugs in a dose-to-effect manner such that sufficient drug is administered to produce precisely a desired effect. The invention also relates to manufacturing techniques that enable therapeutic agents to be incorporated into nondissolvable drug containment matrixes which are capable of releasing the drug within a patient's mouth. An appliance or holder is preferably attached to the drug containment matrix. Employing the present invention the drug may be introduced into the patient's bloodstream almost as fast as through injection, and much faster than using the oral administration route, while avoiding the negative aspects of both of these methods. The nondissolvable drug containment matrix may include permeation enhancers to increase the drug absorption by the mucosal tissues of the mouth. The matrix composition may also include pH buffering agents to modify the saliva pH thereby increasing the absorption of the drug through the mucosal tissues.
Inventor(s): Stanley; Theodore H. (Salt Lake City, UT), Hague; Brian (West Valley City, UT)
Assignee: University of Utah Research Foundation (Salt Lake City, UT)
Filing Date:Sep 05, 1989
Application Number:07/403,752
Claims:1. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient, said dosage-form comprising:

a drug containment matrix which is nondissolvable by the saliva in the mouth of the patient;

a pharmacologically effective dose of a drug being capable of absorption through mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, the pharmacologically effective dose of the drug being contained by the nondissolvable drug containment matrix which is configured to release the drug within the mouth of the patient for absorption through mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus; and

holder means secured to the drug nondissolvable containment matrix so as to form a drug-containing dosage-form, the holder means being configured to permit convenient insertion and removal of the drug-containment matrix into and out of the mouth of the patient.

2. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the nondissolvable drug containment matrix is a chamber defined by a permeable barrier, said permeable barrier having a pore size sufficiently large to permit passage of drug molecules therethrough under appropriate conditions.

3. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 2, wherein the drug is microencapsulated.

4. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 2, wherein the drug is contained within a sponge-like matrix which entraps the drug and releases the drug within the mount of the patient over time in response to pressure exerted on the sponge-like matrix by the mouth of the patient.

5. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 2, wherein the drug is an ingredient of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier having a viscosity such that the drug will not permeate the permeable barrier at the temperature within the mouth of the patient, but wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier has a viscosity such that the drug will permeate the permeable barrier when the drug-containing dosage-form is exposed within the mouth of the patient.

6. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein saliva within the patient's mouth causes the viscosity of the medicament medium to be such that the drug will permeate the permeable barrier when the drug-containing dosage-form is exposed within the mouth of the patient.

7. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein the temperature within the patient's mouth causes the viscosity of the medicament medium to be altered such that the drug will permeate the permeable barrier when the drug-containing dosage-form is exposed within the mouth of the patient.

8. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is embedded within the nondissolvable drug containment matrix.

9. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is microencapsulated.

10. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 9, further comprising a biocompatible material to adhere together a plurality of microencapsulated drug particles into the shape of a dosage-form.

11. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is contained within a matrix capable of entrapping a drug and then releasing the drug over time.

12. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 11, further comprising a biocompatible composition to maintain the matrix in a dosage-form.

13. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a lipophilic drug.

14. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a nonlipophilic drug.

15. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is methohexital.

16. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is pentobarbital.

17. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is thiamylal.

18. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is thiopental.

19. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is hexabarbital.

20. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is fentanyl.

21. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is alfentanil.

22. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sufentanil.

23. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lofentanil.

24. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is carfentanil.

25. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is naloxone.

26. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nalbuphene.

27. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is diazepam.

28. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lorazepam.

29. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lormetazepam.

30. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is midazolam.

31. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxazepam.

32. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is triazolam.

33. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is droperidol.

34. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is haloperidol.

35. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propanidid.

36. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is etomidate.

37. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propofol.

38. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketamine.

39. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is levodopa.

40. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is bretylium.

41. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is captopril.

42. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is clonidine.

43. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dopamine.

44. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is enalapril.

45. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is esmolel.

46. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is furosemide.

47. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isosorbide.

48. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is labetolol.

49. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lidocaine.

50. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metolazone.

51. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metoprolol.

52. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is madolol.

53. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nifedipine.

54. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nitroglycerin.

55. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nitroprusside.

56. propranolo..

57. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is benzquinamide.

58. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is meclizine.

59. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metoclopramide.

60. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is prochlorperazine.

61. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is trimethobenzamide.

62. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is clotrimazole.

63. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nystatin.

64. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is carbidopa.

65. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is levodopa.

66. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sucralfate.

67. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is albuterol.

68. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is aminophylline.

69. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is beclomethasone.

70. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dyphylline.

71. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is epinephrine.

72. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is flunisolide.

73. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isoetharine.

74. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isoproterenol HCL.

75. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metaproterenol.

76. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxtriphylline.

77. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is terbutaline.

78. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is theophylline.

79. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ergotamine.

80. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dihydroergotamine.

81. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is methysergide.

82. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propranolol.

83. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is suloctidil.

84. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ergonoine.

85. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxytocin.

86. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is desmopressin acetate.

87. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lypressin.

88. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is vasopressin.

89. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is insulin.

90. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a B-endorphin.

91. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an enkephalin.

92. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a bradykinin.

93. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is aniotensin I.

94. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a gonadotropic hormone.

95. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an adrenocorticotropic hormone.

96. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is calcitonin.

97. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a parathyroid hormone.

98. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a growth hormone.

99. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is heparin.

100. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a barbiturate.

101. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an opioid agonist.

102. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an opioid antagonist.

103. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a benzodiazepine.

104. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a butyrophenone.

105. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a GABA stimulator.

106. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a substituted phenol.

107. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a phencyclidine.

108. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antiarrhythmic.

109. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a beta blocker.

110. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an ACE inhibitor.

111. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a calcium channel blocker.

112. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antihypertensive.

113. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antihypertensive/angina.

114. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a diuretic.

115. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is angina-acting.

116. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antihypertensive/angina/vasodilator-acting.

117. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a hypotensive-acting.

118. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antiemetic.

119. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antifungal.

120. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an anti-parkinson.

121. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a bronchodilator.

122. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antimigraine.

123. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an oxytocic.

124. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antidiuretic.

125. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antihyperglycemic.

126. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a macromolecular.

127. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an amino acid.

128. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a polysaccharide.

129. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a polypeptide.

130. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antigen.

131. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a nucleoside.

132. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antibody.

133. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a vitamin.

134. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an enzyme.

135. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is central nervous system-acting.

136. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is cardiovascular-acting.

137. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is renal vascular-acting.

138. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a sedative.

139. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is anxiolytic.

140. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is analgesic.

141. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an amnestic.

142. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an anesthetic.

143. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antianginal.

144. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local anesthetic agent.

145. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an anti-plaque agent.

146. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local antipruritic agent.

147. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is local antisecretory agent.

148. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local antifungal agent.

149. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antibiotic.

150. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nicotine.

151. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is atropine.

152. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is scopolamine.

153. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ondansetron.

154. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sumatriptan.

155. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketorolac tromethamine.

156. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is meclofenamate.

157. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is piroxicam.

158. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketoprofen.

159. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is indomethacin.

160. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ibuprofen.

161. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is diciofenac.

162. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is flurbiprofen.

163. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the dosage-form further comprises a permeation enhancer.

164. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium cholate.

165. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium dodecyl sulfate.

166. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium deoxycholate.

167. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is taurodeoxycholate.

168. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium glycocholate.

169. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium taurocholate.

170. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is dimethyl sulfoxide.

171. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium glycodeoxycholate.

172. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium lithocholoate chenocholate.

173. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is chenodeoxycholate.

174. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is ursocholate.

175. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is ursodeoxycholate.

176. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is hydrodeoxycholate.

177. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is dehydrocholate.

178. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is glycochenocholate.

179. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is taurochenocholate.

180. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is taurochenodeoxycholate.

181. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is sodium lauryl sulfate.

182. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein permeation enhancer is salts.

183. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is alcohol.

184. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium ethanol.

185. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is decanol.

186. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is benzyl alcohol.

187. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is caffeine.

188. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is vitamin B.sub.6.

189. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is benzoic acid.

190. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is laurocapram.

191. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is 2-hydroxypropyl-.beta.-cyclodextrin.

192. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is propylene glycol.

193. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is a buffer.

194. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is N-methyl pyrrlidone.

195. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether.

196. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyethylene oxide.

197. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is poleythylene glycol and its derivatives.

198. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyvinyl alchohol.

199. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 163, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyvinyl pyrrolidone.

200. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a 5-HT agonist.

201. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

202. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antithrombotic.

203. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a ganglionic stimulant.

204. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antimuscarinic.

205. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug contributes to the cessation of smoking.
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