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Details for Patent: 5,288,497

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Details for Patent: 5,288,497

Title: Compositions of oral dissolvable medicaments
Abstract:Compositions and methods of manufacture for producing a medicament composition capable of absorption through the mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus. The present invention relates to such compositions and methods which are useful in administering lipophilic and nonlipophilic drugs in a dose-to-effect manner that sufficient drug is administered to produce precisely a desired effect. The invention also relates to a manufacturing technique that enables a therapeutic agent or drug to be incorporated into a flavored dissolvable matrix. An appliance or holder is preferably attached to the dissolvable matrix. Employing the present invention the drug may be introduced into the patient's bloodstream almost as fast as through injection, and much faster than using the oral administration route, while avoiding the negative aspects of both of these methods. The present invention achieves these advantages by incorporating the drug into a carbohydrate, fat, protein, wax, or other dissolvable matrix composition. The dissolvable matrix may include permeation enhancers to increase the drug absorption by the mucosal tissues of the mouth. The matrix composition may also include pH buffering agents to modify the salival pH thereby increasing the absorption of the drug through the mucosal tissue.
Inventor(s): Stanley; Theodore H. (Salt Lake City, UT), Hague; Brian (West Valley City, UT)
Assignee: The University of Utah (Salt Lake City, UT)
Filing Date:Sep 05, 1989
Application Number:07/403,751
Claims:1. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient , said dosage form comprising:

a binding agent which is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient;

a pharmacologically effective dose of a drug being capable of absorption through mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, the drug being dispersed throughout the binding agent to form a mixture that is fashioned into a solid matrix which is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient such that when the solid matrix dissolves in the mouth of the patient, the pharmacologically effective dose of the drug is released for absorption through mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus of the patient;

a permeation enhancer which is also dispersed throughout the solid matrix, the permeation enhancer being capable of modifying the permeability of the mucosal tissues of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus towards the drug in order to facilitate transmucosal absorption of the drug; and

holder means secured to the solid matrix so as to form a drug-containing dosage-form, the holder means being configured so as to permit convenient insertion and removal of the drug-containing dosage-form into and out of the mouth of the patient.

2. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is selectively dispersed throughout the solid matrix.

3. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 2, wherein more of the permeation enhancer is dispersed about the outer periphery of the dosage-form than in the center portion of the dosage-form.

4. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dispersed uniformly throughout the binding agent.

5. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the binding agent comprises a carbohydrate that is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient.

6. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the binding agent comprises a fat that is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient.

7. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the binding agent comprises a protein that is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient.

8. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the binding agent comprises a wax that is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient.

9. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the binding agent comprises a hydrocarbon that is dissolvable in the mouth of the patient.

10. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a crystallized matrix.

11. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a compressed powder.

12. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 11, wherein the drug incorporated into the compressed powder is microencapsulated.

13. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 11, wherein the drug dispersed throughout the compressed powder is contained within a sponge-like material which is biologically inert and capable of entrapping a drug and then releasing the drug over time.

14. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a hydrogel.

15. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 5, wherein the carbohydrate comprises a gelatin.

16. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer comprises a bile salt.

17. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes a lubricating agent dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix in order to allow the removal of the drug-containing dosage-form from articles of manufacture.

18. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes a surfactant dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix in order to allow the removal of the drug-containing dosage-form from articles of manufacture.

19. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes maltodextrin dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix in order to aid in dissipating any unpleasant flavors of the drug in the solid matrix.

20. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes at least one flavor enhancer dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix.

21. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes a hydrophobic agent dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix in order to make slower the dissolution of the solid matrix in the mouth of the patient.

22. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is substantially lipophilic.

23. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is substantially nonlipophilic.

24. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is contained within the binding agent.

25. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug adheres to the binding agent.

26. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes at least one flavoring dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix.

27. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the solid matrix further includes at least one sweetener dispersed uniformly throughout the solid matrix.

28. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 24, wherein the drug is methohexital.

29. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is pentobarbital.

30. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is thiamylal.

31. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is thiopental

32. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is hexabarbital.

33. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is fentanyl.

34. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is alfentanil.

35. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sufentanil.

36. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lofentanil.

37. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is carfentanil.

38. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is naloxone.

39. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nalbuphene.

40. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is diazepam.

41. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lorazepam.

42. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lormetazepam.

43. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is midazolam.

44. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxazepam.

45. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is triazolam.

46. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is droperidol.

47. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is haloperidol.

48. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propanidid.

49. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is etomidate.

50. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propofol.

51. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketamine.

52. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is levodopa.

53. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is bretylium.

54. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is captopril.

55. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is clonidine.

56. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dopamine.

57. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is enalapril.

58. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is esmolel.

59. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is furosemide.

60. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isosorbide.

61. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is labetolol.

62. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lidocaine.

63. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metolazone.

64. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metoprolol.

65. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nadolol.

66. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nifedipine.

67. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nitroglycerin.

68. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nitroprusside.

69. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propranolol

70. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is benzquinamide.

71. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is meclizine.

72. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metoclopramide.

73. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is prochlorperazine.

74. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is trimethobenzamide.

75. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is clotrimazole.

76. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nystatin.

77. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is carbidopa.

78. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is levodopa.

79. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sucralfate.

80. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is albuterol.

81. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is aminophylline.

82. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is beclomethasone.

83. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dyphylline.

84. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is epinephrine.

85. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is flunisolide.

86. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isoetharine.

87. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is isoproterenol HCL.

88. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is metaproterenol.

89. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxtriphylline.

90. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is terbutaline.

91. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is theophylline.

92. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ergotamine.

93. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is dihydroergotamine.

94. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is methysergide.

95. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is propranolol.

96. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is suloctidil.

97. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ergonoine.

98. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxytocin.

99. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is desmopressin acetate.

100. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is lypressin.

101. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is vasopressin.

102. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is insulin.

103. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is B-endorphin.

104. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is enkephalin.

105. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is bradykinin.

106. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is aniotensin I.

107. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is gonadotropic hormone.

108. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is adrenocorticotropic hormone.

109. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is calcitonin.

110. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is parathyroid hormone.

111. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is growth hormone.

112. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is heparin.

113. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is barbiturate.

114. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is opioid agonist.

115. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is opioid antagonist.

116. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is benzodiazepine.

117. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is butyrophenone.

118. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is GABA stimulator.

119. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is substituted phenol.

120. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is phencyclidine.

121. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antiarrhythmic.

122. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a beta blocker.

123. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an ACE inhibitor.

124. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a calcium channel blocker.

125. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antihypertensive.

126. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antihypertesnive/angina.

127. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a diuretic.

128. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is angina-acting.

129. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antihypertensive/angina/vasodilator-acting.

130. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is hypotensive-acting.

131. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antiemetic.

132. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antifungal.

133. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is anti-parkinson.

134. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is bronchodilator.

135. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antimigraine.

136. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is oxytocic.

137. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antidiuretic.

138. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antihyoperglycemic.

139. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is macromolecular.

140. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is amino acid.

141. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is polysaccharide.

142. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a polypeptide.

143. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antigen.

144. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a nucleoside.

145. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antibody.

146. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a vitamin.

147. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an enzyme.

148. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is central nervous system-acting.

149. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is cardiovascular-acting.

150. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is renal vascular-acting.

151. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a sedative.

152. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is anziolytic.

153. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is analgesic.

154. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an amnestic.

155. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an anesthetic.

156. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antianginal.

157. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local anesthetic agent.

158. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an anti-plaque agent.

159. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local antipruritic agent.

160. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local antisecretory agent.

161. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a local antifungal agent.

162. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is an antibiotic.

163. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is nicotine.

164. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is atropine.

165. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is scopolamine.

166. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ondansetron.

167. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is sumatriptan.

168. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketorolac tromethamine.

169. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is meclofenamate.

170. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is piroxicam.

171. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ketoprofen.

172. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is indomethacin.

173. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is ibuprofen.

174. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is diciofenac.

175. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is flurbiprofen.

176. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium cholate.

177. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium dodecyl sulfate.

178. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium deoxycholate.

179. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is taurodeoxycholate.

180. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium glycocholate.

181. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium taurocholate.

182. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is dimethyl sulfoxide.

183. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium glycodeoxycholate.

184. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium lithocholoate chenocholate.

185. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is chenodeoxycholate.

186. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is ursocholate.

187. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is ursodeoxycholate.

188. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is hydrodeoxycholate.

189. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is dehydrocholate.

190. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is glycochenocholate.

191. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is taurochenocholate.

192. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is taurochenodeoxycholate.

193. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is sodium lauryl sulfate.

194. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is salts.

195. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is alcohol.

196. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is ethanol.

197. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is decanol.

198. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is benzyl alcohol.

199. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is caffeine.

200. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is vitamin B.sub.6.

201. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is benzoic acid.

202. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is laurocapram.

203. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is 2-hydroxypropyl-.beta.-cyclodextrin.

204. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is propylene glycol.

205. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is a buffer.

206. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is N-methyl pyrrolidone.

207. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyoxyethylene 9 lauryl ether.

208. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyethylene oxide.

209. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyethylene glycol and its derivatives.

210. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyvinyl alchohol.

211. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the permeation enhancer is polyvinyl pyrrolidone.

212. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a bile salt and its derivatives.

213. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a fatty acid.

214. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a 5-HT agonist.

215. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

216. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antithrombotic.

217. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is a ganglionic stimulant.

218. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug is antimuscarinic.

219. A drug-containing dosage-form for use in transmucosal delivery of the drug to a patient as defined in claim 1, wherein the drug contributes to the cessation of smoking.
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