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Details for Patent: 5,281,408

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Details for Patent: 5,281,408

Title: Low density microspheres and their use as contrast agents for computed tomography
Abstract:Substantially homogeneous aqueous suspensions of low density microspheres are presented as contrast media for imaging the gastrointestinal tract and other body cavities using computed tomography. In one embodiment, the low density microspheres are gas-filled. With computed tomography, the contrast media serve to change the relative density of certain areas within the gastrointestinal tract and other body cavities, and improve the overall diagnostic efficacy of this imaging method.
Inventor(s): Unger; Evan C. (Tucson, AZ)
Assignee:
Filing Date:Jan 19, 1993
Application Number:07/980,594
Claims:1. A method of providing an image of the gastrointestinal region and other body cavities of a patient comprising

(a) administering to the patient a contrast medium comprising a substantially homogeneous aqueous suspension of low density microspheres having an internal void volume of at least about 75% of the total volume of the microsphere, and

(b) scanning the patient using computed tomography imaging to obtain visible images of the gastrointestinal region or other body cavities.

2. A method according to claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers prepared from the group of monomers consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethyleneimine, crotonic acid, acrylamide, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, lactic acid, glycolic acid, .epsilon.-caprolactone, acrolein, cyanoacrylate, bisphenol A, epichlorhydrin, hydroxyalkylacrylates, siloxane, dimethylsiloxane, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, hydroxyalkyl-methacrylates, N-substituted acrylamides, N-substituted methacrylamides, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, styrene, p-amino-styrene, p-amino-benzyl-styrene, sodium styrene sulfonate, sodium 2-sulfoxyethyl methacrylate, vinyl pyridine, aminoethyl methacrylates, 2-methacryloyloxytrimethylammonium chloride, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylates, 2,2'-(p-phenylenedioxy)-diethyl dimethacrylate, divinylbenzene, triallylamine, and methylenebis-(4-phenyl-isocyanate).

3. A method according to claim 2 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers prepared from the group of monomers consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethyleneimine, crotonic acid, acrylamide, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, lactic acid, glycolic acid, .epsilon.-caprolactone, acrolein, cyanoacrylate, bisphenol A, epichlorhydrin, hydroxyalkylacrylates, siloxane, dimethylsiloxane, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, hydroxyalkyl-methacrylates, N-substituted acrylamides, N-substituted methacrylamides, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, styrene, p-amino-styrene, p-amino-benzyl-styrene, sodium styrene sulfonate, sodium 2-sulfoxyethylmethacrylate, vinyl pyridine, aminoethyl methacrylates, and 2-methacryloyloxytrimethylammonium chloride.

4. A method according to claim 1 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, polyethyleneimine, polymethacrylic acid, polymethylmethacrylate, polysiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane, polylactic acid, poly(.epsilon.-capro-lactone), epoxy resin, poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), polyamide, polyvinylidene-polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene-poly-acrylonitrile-polymethylmethacrylate, and polystyrene-polyacrylonitrile.

5. A method according to claim 4 wherein said microspheres comprise polyvinylidene-polyacrylonitrile copolymer.

6. A method according to claim 1 wherein said microspheres are prepared by a heat expansion process.

7. A method according to claim 1 wherein said microspheres are gas-filled.

8. A method according to claim 7 wherein said gas in said gas-filled microspheres is selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, xenon, argon, neon, and helium.

9. A method for diagnosing the presence of diseased tissue in the gastrointestinal region or other body cavities of a patient comprising

(a) administering to the patient a contrast medium comprising a substantially homogeneous aqueous suspension of low density microspheres having an internal void volume of at least about 75% of the total volume of the microsphere, and

(b) scanning the patient using computed tomography imaging to obtain visible images of any diseased tissue in the patient.

10. A method according to claim 9 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers prepared from the group of monomers consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethyleneimine, crotonic acid, acrylamide, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, lactic acid, glycolic acid, .epsilon.-caprolactone, acrolein, cyanoacrylate, bisphenol A, epichlorhydrin, hydroxyalkylacrylates, siloxane, dimethylsiloxane, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, hydroxyalkyl-methacrylates, N-substituted acrylamides, N-substituted methacrylamides, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, styrene, p-amino-styrene, p-amino-benzyl-styrene, sodium styrene sulfonate, sodium 2-sulfoxyethylmethacrylate, vinyl pyridine, aminoethyl methacrylates, 2-methacryloyloxytrimethylammonium chloride, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylates, 2,2'-(p-phenylenedioxy)-diethyl dimethacrylate, divinylbenzene, triallylamine, and methylenebis-(4-phenyl-isocyanate).

11. A method according to claim 10 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers prepared from the group of monomers consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, ethyleneimine, crotonic acid, acrylamide, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, lactic acid, glycolic acid, .epsilon.-caprolactone, acrolein, cyanoacrylate, bisphenol A, epichlorhydrin, hydroxyalkylacrylates, siloxane, dimethylsiloxane, ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, hydroxyalkyl-methacrylates, N-substituted acrylamides, N-substituted methacrylamides, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2,4-pentadiene-1-ol, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, styrene, p-amino-styrene, p-amino-benzyl-styrene, sodium styrene sulfonate, sodium 2-sulfoxyethylmethacrylate, vinyl pyridine, aminoethyl methacrylates, and 2-methacryloyloxytrimethylammonium chloride.

12. A method according to claim 9 wherein said microspheres comprise synthetic polymers or copolymers selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, polyethyleneimine, polymethacrylic acid, polymethylmethacrylate, polysiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane, polylactic acid, poly(.epsilon.-capro-lactone), epoxy resin, poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), polyamide, polyvinylidene-polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene-polyacrylonitrile-polymethylmethacrylate and polystyrene-polyacrylonitrile.

13. A method according to claim 12 wherein said microspheres comprise polyvinylidene-polyacrylonitrile copolymer.

14. A method according to claim 9 wherein said microspheres are prepared by a heat expansion process.

15. A method according to claim 9 wherein said microspheres are gas-filled.

16. A method according to claim 15 wherein said gas in said gas-filled microspheres is selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, xenon, argon, neon, and helium.
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