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|Title:||Membrane for electrotransport transdermal drug delivery|
|Abstract:||A membrane capable of inhibiting agent release from a delivery system when no electrical current is flowing and yet provide minimal impedance to electrically-assisted agent delivery, useful both for incorporating into electrotransport agent delivery systems and for use in measuring agent release rates in in vitro testing.|
|Inventor(s):||Theeuwes; Felix (Los Altos, CA), Gyory; J. Richard (Los Altos, CA), Haak; Ronald P. (Cupertino, CA)|
|Assignee:||Alza Corporation (Palo Alto, CA)|
|Filing Date:||Oct 03, 1988|
|Claims:||1. An iontophoretic agent delivery electrode assembly adapted for placement on a body surface for iontophoretic delivery of agent therethrough, the electrode assembly including an electrode, a means for connecting said electrode to a source of electrical power, and an agent reservoir containing an agent to be delivered through the body surface, the reservoir being electrically connected to the electrode, the assembly having: a membrane for controlling agent delivery from the electrode assembly, the membrane being positioned between said reservoir and said body surface, the membrane exhibiting an electrically-assisted flux (J.sub.EK) of the agent therethrough and impeding passive flux (J.sub.P) of the agent therethrough, the membrane exhibiting a ratio of J.sub.EK :J.sub.P of at least about 2.5. |
2. The electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said membrane is comprised of a hydrophilic resin blended into a hydrophobic polymeric matrix.
3. The electrode assembly of claim 2 wherein said hydrophilic resin has a high permeability for said agent and said hydrophobic polymeric matrix has a low permeability for said agent.
4. The electrode assembly of claim 3 wherein said hydrophilic resin is cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone.
5. The electrode assembly of claim 4, wherein said hydrophilic resin comprises less than about 15 vol. % of the membrane.
6. The electrode assembly of claim 3 wherein said hydrophilic resin is an ion exchange resin.
7. The electrode assembly of claim 6, wherein the ion exchange resin comprises a styrene divinylbenzene lattice with paired iminodiacetate cation exchange groups.
8. The electrode assembly of claim 7, wherein the resin comprises up to about 50 vol. % of the membrane.
9. The electrode assembly of claim 6 wherein said ion exchange resin has a functional group selected from the group consisting of sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, iminodiacetic acid, and quaternary amines.
10. The electrode assembly of claim 6, wherein the ion exchange resin is a mcaroreticular acrylic polymer based carboxylic acid cation exchange resin and the resin comprises less than about 23 vol. % of the membrane.
11. The electrode assembly of claim 3 wherein said hydrophobic polymeric matrix is an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer having a vinyl acetate content of about 1 to 40 weight percent.
12. The electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said agent is a macromolecule.
13. The electrode assembly of claim 12 wherein said agent is selected from the group consisting of peptides, polypeptides and proteins.
14. The electrode assembly of claim 1 wherein said agent is selected from the group consisting of metoclopramide, baclofen, betamethasone, beclomethasone, doxazosin, droperidol, fentanyl, sufentail, leuprolide, lidocaine, methotrexate, miconazole, prazosin, piroxicam, verapamil, tetracaine, dilitiazam, indomethacin, hydrocortisone, terbutaline and encainide.
15. The electrode assembly of claim 1, wherein the membrane exhibits a resistivity of less than about 10 kohm-cm.sup.2.