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Details for Patent: 4,672,040

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Details for Patent: 4,672,040

Title: Magnetic particles for use in separations
Abstract:Methods are provided for the use of magnetically responsive particles in systems in which the separation of certain molecules, macromolecules and cells from the surrounding medium is desirable. The magnetically responsive particles may be coupled to a wide variety of molecules. The magnetic particles can be dispersed in aqueous media without rapid settling and conveniently reclaimed from media with a magnetic field. Preferred particles do not become magnetic after application of a magnetic field and can be redispersed and reused.
Inventor(s): Josephson; Lee (Arlington, MA)
Assignee: Advanced Magnetics, Inc. (Cambridge, MA)
Filing Date:Jun 28, 1985
Application Number:06/749,692
Claims:1. A method for carrying out nucleic acid hybridization which comprises:

(a) contacting a first nucleic acid molecule covalently coupled to a magnetically-responsive particle with a solution or suspension containing a complementary nucleic acid molecule in a reaction vessel;

(b) allowing the first nucleic acid molecule and the complementary nucleic acid molecules to hybridize;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetically responsive particles with complementary nucleic acid molecules bound thereto from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the bound nucleic acid molecule from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particle of step (a) comprises a magnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, a mass of such uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

2. A method for carrying out nucleic acid hybridization which comprises:

(a) contacting a first nucleic acid molecule covalently coupled to a magnetically-responsive particle with a solution or suspension containing a complementary nucleic acid molecule in a reaction vessel;

(b) allowing the first nucleic acid molecule and the complementary nucleic acid molecules to hybridize;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetically-responsive particles with complementary nucleic acid molecules bound thereto from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the bound nucleic acid molecule from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particle of step (a) comprises a superparamagnetic iron oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, the iron oxide core including a group of crystals of iron oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup.2 /gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

3. A method for carrying out nucleic acid hybridization which comprises:

(a) contacting a first nucleic acid molecule covalently coupled to a magnetically-responsive particle with a solution or suspension containing a complementary nucleic acid molecule in a reaction vessel;

(b) allowing the first nucleic acid molecule and the complementary nucleic acid molecules to hybridize;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetically responsive particles with complementary nucleic acid molecules bound thereto from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the bound nucleic acid molecule from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particle of step (a) comprises a ferromagnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, the metal oxide core including a group of crystals of metal oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup.2 /gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

4. The method according to claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is deoxyribonucleic acid.

5. The method according to claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is ribonucleic acid.

6. The method according to claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is a homopolymeric oligonucleotide.

7. The method according to claim 6 wherein the homopolymeric oligonucleotide is selected from the group consisting of polyuridylic acid, polythymidylic acid, polyadenylic acid, and polyguanidylic acid.

8. A method for selecting a subpopulation of cells, bacteria or viruses from a heterogeneous population which comprises: (a) incubating a solution or suspension of the heterogeneous population with a ligate which specifically binds to the subpopulation;

(b) reacting magnetically-responsive particles to which a ligand which specifically binds to the ligate in solution or suspension of step (a) is covalently coupled with the solution or suspension of step (a) for a sufficient time to form a ligand/ligate complex;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetic particle-ligand/ligate-subpopulation complexes from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the subpopulation from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particles of step (b) individually comprise a magnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

9. A method for selecting a subpopulation of cells, bacteria or viruses from a heterogeneous population which comprises: (a) incubating a solution or suspension of the heterogeneous population with a ligate which specifically binds to the subpopulation;

(b) reacting magnetically-responsive particles to which a ligand which specifically binds to the ligate in solution or suspension of step (a) is covalently coupled with the solution of step (a) for a sufficient time to form a ligand/ligate complex;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetic particle-ligand/ligate-subpopulation complexes from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the subpopulation from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particles of step (b) individually comprise a superparamagnetic iron oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, the iron oxide core including a group of crystals of iron oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup.2 /gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

10. A method for selecting a subpopulation of cells, bacteria or viruses from a heterogeneous population which comprises:

(a) incubating a solution or suspension of the heterogeneous population with a ligate which specifically binds to the subpopulation;

(b) reacting magnetically-responsive particles to which a ligand which specifically binds to the ligate in solution or suspension of step (a) is covalently coupled with the solution of step (a) for a sufficient time to form a ligand/ligate complex;

(c) magnetically separating the magnetic particle-ligand/ligate-subpopulation complexes from the solution or suspension; and

(d) recovering the subpopulation from the magnetically-responsive particles,

wherein the magnetically-responsive particles of step (b) individually comprise a ferromagnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane, the metal oxide core including a group of crystals of metal oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup.2 /gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (i) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (ii) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

11. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is an antibody.

12. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is protein A.

13. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is a fluorescent dye.

14. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is a lectin.

15. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is protein A and the ligate is an antibody.

16. The method of claim 8, 9 or 10 wherein the ligand is an antibody specific for fluorescein and the ligate is fluorescein.

17. A coupled magnetically-responsive particle comprising a magnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane to which a nucleic acid molecule is covalently coupled, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (a) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (b) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

18. A coupled magnetically-responsive particle comprising a superparamagnetic iron oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polymeric silane to which a nucleic acid molecule is covalently coupled, the iron oxide core including a group of crystals of iron oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup.2 /gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (a) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (b) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

19. A coupled magnetically-responsive particle comprising a ferromagnetic metal oxide core generally surrounded by a coat of polvmeric silane to which a nucleic acid molecule is covalently coupled, the metal oxide core including a group of crystals of metal oxide, the uncoupled particle having a mean diameter as measured by light scattering between about 0.1.mu. and about 1.5.mu. and a surface area as measured by nitrogen gas adsorption of at least about 100 m.sup./2 gm, a mass of the uncoupled particles being dispersable in aqueous media to form an aqueous dispersion having (a) a fifty-percent-turbidity-decrease settling time of greater than about 1.5 hours in the absence of a magnetic field, and (b) a ninety-five-percent-turbidity-decrease separation time of less than about 10 minutes in the presence of a magnetic field, the magnetic field being applied to the aqueous dispersion by bringing a vessel containing a volume of the dispersion into contact with a pole face of a permanent magnet, the permanent magnet having a volume which is less than the volume of the aqueous dispersion in the vessel.

20. The coupled magnetically-responsive particle according to claim 17, 18 or 19 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is a deoxyribonucleic acid molecule.

21. The coupled magnetically-resoonsive particle according to claim 17, 18 or 19 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is a ribonucleic acid molecule.

22. The coupled magnetically-responsive particle according to claim 17, 18 or 19 wherein the nucleic acid molecule is a homopolymeric oligonucleotide.

23. The coupled magnetically-responsive particle according to claim 22 wherein the homopolymeric oligonucleotide is selected from the group consisting of polyuridylic acid, polythymidilic acid, polyadenylic acid and polyguanidylic acid.
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