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|Title:||Controlled release formulations having rapid onset and rapid decline of effective plasma drug concentrations|
|Abstract:||The invention is directed to oral modified/controlled release drug formulations which provide a rapid initial onset of effect and a prolonged duration of effect. Preferably, the peak concentration is lower than that provided by the reference standard for immediate release formulations of the drug, and the duration of effect falls rapidly at the end of the dosing interval.|
|Inventor(s):||Krishnamurthy; Thinnayam N. (Scarborough, CA), Darke; Andrew (Newmarket, CA)|
|Assignee:||Purdue Pharma (Pickering, Ontario, CA)|
1. An oral controlled release formulation comprising a plurality of multi-layer release beads, each bead comprising: (i) an immediate release core comprising a first portion
of an effective dose of methylphenidate or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof coated over an inert pharmaceutically acceptable bead; (ii) a controlled release layer coated over the core, the controlled release layer comprising a hydrophobic
material in an amount sufficient to provide a controlled release of the first portion of the methylphenidate over a predetermined period of time, the hydrophobic material selected from the group consisting of an alkylcellulose, an acrylic polymer and
mixtures thereof; (iii) a release delaying layer coated over the controlled release layer, the release delaying layer comprising a pH-dependent polymer in an amount sufficient to delay release of the first portion of the effective dose of
methylphenidate or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof until after the formulation passes through the stomach; and (iv) an outer layer coated over the release delaying layer, the outer layer comprising a second portion of the effective dose of
methylphenidate or the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof; wherein the formulation provides: (a) a maximum plasma concentration of methylphenidate at about 0.5 to about 4 hours after an oral administration to a human patient, (b) a plasma
concentration of methylphenidate which does not differ by more than 20% during a measuring interval, wherein the measuring interval is from about 2 hours to about 6 hours, (c) the plasma concentration of methylphenidate which is below effective plasma
concentrations in said human patient at about 8 to 12 hours after the oral administration, and (d) an in-vitro dissolution as follows: TABLE-US-00034 Time % Methylphenidate (hours) Dissolved 0.25 0-45% 1 5-50% 4 40-90% 8 NLT 60% 12 NLT 80%.
2. The formulation of claim 1, wherein the formulation exhibits biphasic absorption through a mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract of said human patient.
3. The formulation of claim 1, which provides the maximum plasma concentration of methylphenidate which is from about 1.0 to about 2.0 times the plasma concentration of methylphenidate provided by the formulation at about 9 hours after the oral administration.
4. The formulation of claim 3, wherein the formulation provides the maximum plasma concentration at about 0.5 to about 2 hours after the oral administration.
5. The formulation of claim 4, wherein the maximum plasma concentration is from about 1.0 to about 1.7 times the plasma concentration of the methylphenidate provided by the formulation at about 9 hours after the oral administration.
6. The formulation of claim 1, wherein the plasma concentration the methylphenidate falls below effective plasma concentrations at about 8 to about 10 hours after the oral administration.
7. The formulation of claim 1, comprising a gelatin capsule containing a unit dose of said multi-layer release beads.
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