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|Title:||Diketopiperazine microparticles with defined specific surface areas|
|Abstract:||Disclosed herein are diketopiperazine microparticles having a specific surface area of less than about 67 m.sup.2/g. The diketopiperazine microparticle can be fumaryl diketopiperazine and can comprise a drug such as insulin.|
|Inventor(s):||Grant; Marshall L. (Newtown, CT), Stowell; Grayson W. (Gaylordsville, CT), Menkin; Paul (Branford, CT)|
|Assignee:||Mannkind Corporation (Valencia, CA)|
1. Diketopiperazine microparticles having a specific surface area of 40 m.sup.2/g to about 67 m.sup.2/g.
2. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 1, wherein said microparticles comprise a drug or active agent.
3. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 2, wherein said specific surface area is less than 62 m.sup.2/g.
4. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 3, wherein said drug or active agent is a peptide or protein.
5. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 4, wherein said peptide is an endocrine hormone.
6. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 5, wherein said endocrine hormone is insulin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin, and an analog or active fragment of said endocrine hormone.
7. The diketopiperazine microparticles according to claim 1, comprising (bis-3,6-di(N-fumaryl-4-aminobutyl)-2,5-diketopiperazine.
8. A dry powder comprising the diketopiperazine microparticles of claim 3.
9. A composition comprising diketopiperazine microparticles having a specific surface area of 40 m.sup.2/g to about 67 m.sup.2/g.
10. The composition of claim 9, wherein an active agent is present on a surface of the microparticles.
11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the active agent is an endocrine hormone, a vasoactive agent, a neuroactive agent, a hormone, an anticoagulant, an immunomodulating agent, a cytotoxic agent, an antibiotic, an antiviral agent, an antigen, and infectious agent, an inflammatory mediator, a hormone, or a cell surface antigen.
12. The composition of claim 10, wherein the active agent is insulin.
13. The composition of claim 12, wherein the microparticles are about 11% insulin by weight.
14. The composition of claim 10, wherein the active agent is GLP-1.
15. The composition of claim 10, wherein the active agent is about 0.01% to about 20% of the weight of the microparticles.
16. The composition of claim 9, wherein at least a portion of the microparticles are crystalline.
17. The composition of claim 9, wherein the diketopiperazine microparticles comprise (bis-3,6-di(N-fumaryl-4-aminobutyl)-2,5-diketopiperazine; 2,5-diketo-3,6-di(4-succinylaminobutyl)piperazine; 2,5-diketo-3,6-di(4-glutarylaminobutyl) piperazine; or, 2,5-diketo-3,6-di(4-maleylaminobutyl)piperazine.
18. The composition of claim 9, wherein the microparticles have a specific surface about 40 m.sup.2/g to about 62 m.sup.2/g.
19. The composition of claim 9, wherein the microparticles comprise crystalline diketopiperazine that is formed by crystallization from an aqueous solution at a temperature of about 13.degree. C. to about 23.degree. C.
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